Job Patterns For Minorities And Women In Private Industry, 2008
Indicators Over Time

This section presents patterns of equal employment opportunity for minorities and women in the U.S. private sector since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The data series begins in 1966 and continues to the most recent year available (2008). Employment numbers and participation rates before 2005 were cited from “Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity Status and Trends, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2004”. Due to its unique racial and ethnicity composition, the state of Hawaii was excluded from all levels of aggregates prior to 2007. An Appendix at the end of this section provides detailed information on the historical EEO patterns and trends in table format by year.

For the first time in 2007, separate data on the new race and occupational groups was contained in EEO-1 aggregates. However, readers should bear in mind that in prior years, data on Asians included Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders and no data was reported on persons of Two or More Races. Readers should also be aware that the previous Officials & Managers job category was divided into two levels in the 2007 survey: Executive/Senior Level and First/Mid Level. As a result, care should be exercised when comparing current year data to data from previous years.

List of Major Charts and Tables

T1. Private Sector Employment of Women vs. Men (1966-2008)
U.S. Summary


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004). No survey for 1968 and 1977.


Year

1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 2008
Men 68.8 61.6 53.9 52.6 51.6 51.4
Women 31.2 38.4 46.1 47.4 48.4 48.6
Total1 24,887 32,303 37,201 46,683 55,388 62,153

*** The private sector employment in 2008 was two and a half times its 1966 level from about 25 million to over 62 million. The 150 percent increase was associated with a marked rise in women's employment.

Between 1966 and 2008, the overall participation rate for women in the private sector rose from 31.2 percent to 48.6 percent, an increase of 17.4 percentage points over four decades since EEOC first started collecting employment data from the sector. 1 Total employment is in thousands.

T2. Private Sector Employment of Minority vs. Non-Minority (1966-2008)
U.S. Summary


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004). No survey for years 1968 and 1977.


Year

1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 2008
Non-Minority 88.8 84.5 79.6 74.4 68.0 65.8
Minority 11.2 15.5 20.4 25.6 32.0 34.2
Total1 24,887 32,303 37,201 46,683 55,388 62,

**** In 1966, about 11.2 percent of the private sector employees in the EEO-1 survey consisted of Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians. This rate of minority employment tripled to 34.2 percent in 2008. Two minority race groups were added to the EEO-1 data collection system in 2007: Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders and Two or More Races. 1Total employment is in thousands.

T3. Private Sector Employment by Minority Groups in Percent (1966-2008)
U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004). No survey for years 1968 and 1977.


Year

1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 2008
Black 8.2 10.0 12.0 13.1 14.0 13.9
Hispanic 2.5 4.2 5.8 8.4 12.4 13.6
Asian 0.3 0.9 2.2 3.5 5.0 5.0
American Indians, Alaskan Native 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander - - - - - 0.4
Two Or More Races - - - - - 0.8
Total1 24,887 32,303 37,201 46,683 55,388 62,15

* * * Among the four minority groups continuously measured in the EEO-1 survey, the employment rate for Black or African Americans increased steadily from 8.2 percent in 1966 to 13.9 percent in 2008. Hispanics or Latinos had the fastest growth rate in the private sector, increasing from 2.5 percent to 13.6 percent between 1966 and 2008.

Starting in 2007, Asian category was divided into Asians and Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders.


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, 2004.


Year *

1966 1983 2002 2006 2008
Men (%) 90.7 77.1 63.6 62.7 62.5
Women (%) 9.3 22.9 36.4 37.3 37.5
Total1 24,887 32,303 37,201 46,683 55,38

* * * In 1966, the first year when EEO-1 data was available of the private sector, women held 9.3 percent of the total Official and Manager positions in the private industry. This figure went up to 37.5 percent in 2008, an increase of 28.2 percentage points within four decades.

Note: Years selected from available data.

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Year *

1966 1983 2002 2006 2008
Minority (%) 1.8 8.2 15.8 17.7 19.9
Non-Minority (%) 98.2 91.8 84.2 82.3

* * * People of minority groups accounted for 1.8 percent of the total Official and Manager positions as reported in the 1966 EEO-1 survey of the private sector. This rate increased to 19.9 percent in 2008.

Note: Years selected from available data.


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Year *

1966 1983 2002 2008
Black 0.9 4.3 6.9 6.9
Hispanic 0.6 2.4 5.3 7.5
Asians 0.2 1.2 3.3 4.0
American Indians, Alaskan Native 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.4
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander - - - 0.2
Two Or More Races - - - 0.5

* * * Since 1966, shares of minorities in Official and Manager positions have risen along with their employment rates in the private sector. Black Officials and Managers rose from 0.9 percent in 1966 to 6.9 percent in 2008; Hispanic Officials and Managers, from 0.6 percent to 4.0 percent; Asian Officials and Managers, from 0.2 percent to 7.6 percent; and American Indian Officials and Managers, from 0.1 percent to 0.4 percent.

Note: Years selected from available data.

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Year *

1966 1983 2002 2006 2008
Men (%) 79.5 59.3 48.3 47.5 47.0
Women (%) 20.5 40.7 51.7 52.5 53.0

*** Nationwide, one-in-five or 20.5 percent of the total Professional positions in the private sector were held by women in 1966. These figures rose up to over one-in-two or 53.0 percent in 2008 as reported in the EEO-1 survey.

Note: Years selected from available data.


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Year *

1966 1983 2002 2006 2008
Minority (%) 3.9 10.6 20.0 22.6 24.5
Non-Minority (%) 96.1 89.4 80.0 77.4 75.5

*** Between 1966 and 2008, minorities employed as Professionals in the private sector rose from 3.9 percent to 24.5 percent, at a pace faster than their employment growth in the industry from 11.2 percent to 34.2 percent within the same time period (Also see Appendix II).

Note: Years selected from available data.


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Year

1966 1983 2002 2006 2008
Sales Workers 38.8 53.6 56.4 56.9 56.4
Office/Clerical 72.0 84.4 80.3 79.3 78.7
Service Workers 43.1 56.1 57.7 58.3 59.7
Total Employment 31.2 43.8 48.2 48.4 48.6

* * * Compared to their total employment rate, women have been well represented historically in job categories such as Office/Clerical Workers, Service Workers and Sales Workers in the private sector. This occupational trend of gender differences continued to 2008 as more women entered the private labor force.

Note: Years selected from available data.


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Year *

1966 1983 2002 2006 2008
Operatives 14.3 25.3 35.6 35.8 39.6
Laborers 28.1 32.9 47.6 47.6 52.6
Service Workers 27.5 32.3 46.2 46.1 49.4
Total Employment 11.2 18.7 29.7 29.9 34.2

* * * Historically, minorities have been well represented in occupations such as Laborers, Service Workers, and Operatives in the private sector. This occupational pattern of minority groups remained unchanged in 2008 as reported in EEO-1 survey.

Note: Years selected from available data.


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Health Care and Social Assistance (%) Education Services (%) Finance and Insurance (%)
2003 79.1 61.8 62.6
2004 79.1 61.6 61.9
2005 79.1 61.9 61.3
2006 79.1 62.3 60.8
2008 79.2 63.3 60.3

* * * Over the past 5 years beginning in 2003, industries with consistently high female employment included Health Care and Social Assistance (79.1 percent in 2003 and 79.2 percent in 2008), Education Services (61.8 percent and 63.3 percent), and Finance and Insurance (62.6 percent and 60.3 percent) (Also see Table I to Table XV in the Appendix).

Note: Years selected from available data.


Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).


Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting Accommodation and Food Services Waste Management and Remediation Services
2003 54.7 43.8 43.0
2004 58.1 44.0 43.8
2005 58.1 44.4 45.0
2006 57.4 44.8 47.6
2008 67.3 47.8 50.9

*** Three industries with consistently high minority employment between 2003 and 2008 included Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (54.7 percent in 2003 to 67.3 percent in 2008), Accommodation and Food Services (43.8 percent to 47.8 percent), and Waste Management and Remediation Services (43.0 percent to 50.9 percent) (Also see Table I to Table XV in the Appendix.)

Note: Years selected from available data.

Appendix I. PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION RATES OF MEN AND WOMEN BY POPULATION
GROUP AND YEAR, U.S. SUMMARY, 1966-2008
Year Total, All Groups Whites Minorities
Total Blacks Hispanics Asians American Indians, Alaskan Natives Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders Two or More Races
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
1966 68.8 31.2 60.9 27.8 7.8 3.4 5.7 2.4 1.8 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 - - - -
1967 67.7 32.3 59.5 28.4 8.2 3.9 5.9 2.8 1.9 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1969 66.1 33.9 57.3 29.1 8.8 4.8 6.1 3.4 2.1 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1970 65.9 34.1 56.6 28.9 9.3 5.2 6.4 3.7 2.4 1.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1971 66.1 33.9 57.4 28.8 8.8 5.1 5.9 3.6 2.4 1.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1972 64.8 35.2 55.6 29.6 9.1 5.6 6.1 3.9 2.5 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1973 63.5 36.5 53.8 30.3 9.6 6.2 6.3 4.3 2.7 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1974 63.3 36.7 53.5 30.1 9.8 6.5 6.4 4.5 2.8 1.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1975 62.7 37.3 53.3 30.7 9.5 6.6 6.0 4.5 2.8 1.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1976 61.6 38.4 52.6 31.9 9.0 6.5 5.7 4.3 2.7 1.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1978 60.0 40.0 49.9 32.2 10.1 7.8 6.1 5.1 3.1 1.9 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.1 - - - -
1979 59.8 40.2 49.4 32.1 10.4 8.1 6.2 5.3 3.1 2.1 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.1 - - - -
1980 58.7 41.3 48.3 32.9 10.4 8.4 6.0 5.4 3.2 2.1 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.1 - - - -
1981 58.2 41.8 48.0 33.2 10.2 8.6 5.9 5.5 3.3 2.3 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.1 - - - -
1982 57.4 42.6 47.4 33.9 10.0 8.7 5.6 5.5 3.2 2.2 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1983 56.2 43.8 46.4 34.8 9.8 8.9 5.5 5.6 3.1 2.3 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1984 56.1 43.9 45.9 34.7 10.2 9.2 5.6 5.8 3.2 2.3 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.2 - - - -
1985 55.6 44.4 45.1 34.9 10.4 9.6 5.8 6.0 3.3 2.4 1.1 1.0 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1986 54.9 45.1 44.4 35.2 10.5 9.9 5.8 6.2 3.3 2.5 1.1 1.1 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1987 54.1 45.9 43.4 35.6 10.7 10.3 5.9 6.4 3.4 2.6 1.2 1.1 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1988 53.9 46.1 43.0 35.6 10.9 10.5 5.9 6.5 3.5 2.6 1.3 1.2 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1989 53.8 46.2 42.6 35.4 11.2 10.8 5.9 6.6 3.8 2.8 1.4 1.3 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1990 53.5 46.5 42.1 35.5 11.4 11.0 5.9 6.6 3.9 2.9 1.4 1.3 0.2 0.2 - - - -
1991 53.3 46.7 41.9 35.6 11.4 11.0 5.8 6.5 4.0 2.9 1.5 1.4 0.3 0.2 - - - -
1992 53.1 46.9 41.5 35.7 11.6 11.2 5.8 6.6 4.1 3.0 1.5 1.5 0.3 0.2 - - - -

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004). No survey for years 1968 and 1977.

Note: Details may not add up due to rounding.

Appendix I. PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION RATES OF MEN AND WOMEN BY POPULATION
GROUP AND YEAR, U.S. SUMMARY, 1966-2008
(continued)
Year Total, All Groups Whites Minorities
Total Blacks Hispanics Asians American Indians, Alaskan Natives Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders Two or More Races
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
1993 53.0 47.0 41.1 35.5 11.9 11.5 5.9 6.6 4.2 3.1 1.6 1.5 0.3 0.2 - - - -
1994 52.9 47.1 40.7 35.2 12.2 11.9 6.0 6.8 4.4 3.2 1.6 1.6 0.3 0.2 - - - -
1995 52.7 47.3 40.0 35.0 12.7 12.3 6.0 7.0 4.6 3.4 1.7 1.6 0.3 0.2 - - - -
1996 52.6 47.4 39.6 34.8 13.0 12.6 6.1 7.1 4.9 3.6 1.8 1.7 0.3 0.3 - - - -
1997 52.4 47.6 39.1 34.6 13.3 13.0 6.1 7.2 5.0 3.7 1.9 1.8 0.3 0.3 - - - -
1998 52.2 47.8 38.6 34.2 13.7 13.5 6.2 7.4 5.2 4.0 2.0 1.8 0.3 0.3 - - - -
1999 52.1 47.9 38.0 33.9 14.1 14.0 6.3 7.6 5.5 4.2 2.0 1.9 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2000 52.1 47.9 37.5 33.4 14.6 14.4 6.3 7.6 5.9 4.5 2.1 2.0 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2001 52.0 48.0 37.2 33.4 14.8 14.7 6.2 7.6 6.1 4.7 2.2 2.1 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2002 51.8 48.2 36.9 33.5 14.8 14.7 6.1 7.5 6.2 4.8 2.2 2.1 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2003 51.7 48.3 36.7 33.5 15.0 14.9 6.1 7.5 6.3 4.9 2.3 2.2 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2004 51.6 48.4 36.3 33.2 15.3 15.3 6.1 7.6 6.5 5.1 2.4 2.3 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2005 51.5 48.5 35.9 32.9 15.6 15.5 6.2 7.6 6.7 5.3 2.4 2.3 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2006 51.6 48.4 35.5 32.5 16.1 15.9 6.3 7.7 6.9 5.5 2.6 2.4 0.3 0.3 - - - -
2007 51.6 48.4 34.4 31.5 17.2 16.9 6.3 7.7 7.7 6.0 2.5 2.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
2008 51.4 48.6 34.2 31.6 17.2 17.0 6.2 7.7 7.6 6.0 2.6 2.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004). No survey for years 1968 and 1977.

Note: Details may not add up due to rounding.

Appendix II. PRIVATE SECTOR TOTAL EMPLOYMENT AND PARTICIPATION RATES OF MINORITIES AND WOMEN BY JOB CATEGORY, U.S. SUMMARY, 1966,1983 AND 2002-2008



Minority (Participation Rates)



Job Category Year Total Employment Total Blacks Hispanics Asian American Indians, Alaskan Natives Native Hawaiianor Other Pacific Islanders Two or More Races Women
Total, All Jobs







1966 24,887,122 11.2 8.2 2.5 0.3 0.2 - - 31.2
1983 35,024,402 18.7 11.1 5.4 1.9 0.4 - - 43.8
2002 52,065,431 29.7 13.7 11.0 4.4 0.6 - - 48.2
2003 50,308,961 29.9 13.6 11.2 4.5 0.6 - - 48.3
2004 52,573,932 30.5 13.7 11.6 4.6 0.6 - - 48.4
2005 54,225,573 31.3 13.9 12.0 4.8 0.6 - - 48.5
2006 55,388,042 32.0 14.0 12.4 5.0 0.6 - - 48.4
2007 61,192,780 34.0 14.0 13.7 4.9 0.6 0.3 0.5 48.4
2008 62,153,609 34.2 13.9 13.6 5.0 0.6 0.4 0.8 48.6
Officials/Managers





1966 2,048,655 1.8 0.9 0.6 0.2 0.1 - - 9.3
1983 4,395,033 8.2 4.3 2.4 1.2 0.3 - - 22.9
2002 5,919,471 15.9 6.9 5.3 3.3 0.4 - - 36.4
2003 5,681,684 16.0 6.8 5.4 3.4 0.4 - - 36.5
2004 5,930,895 16.6 6.9 5.7 3.6 0.4 - - 36.7
2005 6,123,891 17.1 7.0 5.9 3.8 0.4 - - 37.1
2006 6,303,259 17.7 7.1 6.2 4.0 0.4 - - 37.3
Exe/SR Offls/Mgrs1
2007 1,089,002 16.6 3.5 8.8 3.5 0.3 0.2 0.3 28.0
2008 1,041,409 15.9 3.3 8.1 3.7 0.3 0.2 0.4 27.5
First/Mid Offls/Mgrs1
2007 5,687,466 20.2 7.6 7.3 4.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 39.0
2008 5,902,020 20.6 7.6 7.4 4.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 39.2
Professionals







1966 1,818,604 3.9 1.7 0.8 1.3 0.1 - - 20.5
1983 3,806,844 10.6 4.4 2.0 3.9 0.3 - - 40.7
2002 8,009,309 20.0 7.1 4.1 8.4 0.4 - - 51.7
2003 7,893,136 20.5 7.2 4.2 8.7 0.4 - - 52.2
2004 8,272,122 21.0 7.3 4.3 9.0 0.4 - - 52.3
2005 8,608,217 21.7 7.4 4.5 9.4 0.4 - - 52.2
2006 8,943,878 22.6 7.6 4.7 9.9 0.4 - - 52.5
2007 10,010,271 23.8 7.7 5.1 9.9 0.4 0.3 0.3 52.8
2008 10,486,457 24.5 7.7 5.2 10.1 0.4 0.3 0.7 52.8
Technicians







1966 1,086,792 6.5 4.0 1.5 0.8 0.2 - - 22.6
1983 2,032,168 15.8 8.9 3.7 2.8 0.3 - - 41.7
2002 2,992,410 25.4 11.8 7.2 5.7 0.7 - - 45.9
2003 2,889,165 25.8 11.9 7.4 5.9 0.6 - - 46.4
2004 3,013,155 26.5 12.2 7.6 6.1 0.6 - - 47.1
2005 3,165,549 27.2 12.5 7.9 6.2 0.6 - - 47.0
2006 3,167,580 27.5 12.6 8.0 6.3 0.6 - - 46.9
2007 3,348,301 29.4 13.1 8.9 6.0 0.6 0.4 0.4 47.6
2008 3,412,541 30.0 13.1 9.0 6.2 0.6 0.4 0.7 48.2
Sales Workers







1966 1,792,981 4.2 2.4 1.4 0.2 0.2 - - 38.8
1983 3,822,814 13.8 7.6 4.5 1.3 0.3 - - 53.6
2002 7,848,162 26.8 13.0 9.8 3.4 0.6 - - 56.4
2003 7,495,424 26.9 12.8 10.0 3.5 0.6 - - 56.1
2004 7,861,846 27.8 13.2 10.3 3.6 0.7 - - 56.6
2005 8,267,425 29.0 13.6 10.9 3.8 0.7 - - 57.2
2006 8,339,552 29.8 13.9 11.3 3.9 0.7 - - 56.9
2007 8,896,422 31.3 14.0 11.9 3.8 0.7 0.3 0.6 56.5
2008 8,860,366 31.5 13.6 12.2 3.6 0.7 0.4 0.1 56.4

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Note: Details may not add up due to rounding. 1Newly added job categories since 2007.

Appendix II. PRIVATE SECTOR TOTAL EMPLOYMENT AND PARTICIPATION RATES OF MINORITIES AND WOMEN BY JOB CATEGORY, U.S. SUMMARY, 1966,1983 AND 2002-2008
(continued)


Job Category


Year

Minority (Participation Rates)

Total Employment Total Blacks Hispanics Asian American Indians, Alaskan Natives Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders Two or More Races Women
Office/Clerical







1966 4,132,212 5.7 3.5 1.7 0.4 0.1 - - 72.0
1983 5,861,752 18.8 11.6 5.0 1.9 0.4 - - 84.4
2002 7,395,591 30.1 15.9 9.7 3.9 0.6 - - 80.3
2003 7,233,355 30.5 15.9 10.0 4.0 0.6 - - 79.8
2004 7,373,611 31.0 15.9 10.4 4.1 0.6 - - 79.6
2005 7,478,504 31.4 15.9 10.7 4.2 0.6 - - 79.5
2006 7,594,013 32.3 16.2 11.1 4.4 0.6 - - 79.3
2007 8,130,766 33.4 16.0 11.8 4.2 0.6 0.3 0.5 79.0
2008 8,173,552 33.9 15.9 12.1 4.2 0.5 0.4 0.8 78.7
Skilled Craft







1966 3,600,064 6.0 3.6 2.0 0.2 0.2 - - 6.4
1983 3,773,892 15.1 8.4 5.3 1.0 0.5 - - 8.8
2002 3,635,789 23.3 9.6 10.6 2.4 0.7 - - 12.8
2003 3,444,278 23.7 9.5 11.1 2.4 0.7 - - 12.7
2004 3,509,962 24.6 9.5 11.9 2.5 0.7 - - 12.7
2005 3,449,869 25.4 9.5 12.5 2.6 0.8 - - 11.2
2006 3,485,571 26.5 9.5 13.5 2.7 0.8 - - 10.7
2007 3,858,393 29.0 9.3 15.7 2.6 0.8 0.3 0.3 9.6
2008 3,819,723 28.9 9.2 15.6 2.6 0.8 0.2 0.4 9.0
Operatives







1966 6,477,598 14.3 10.8 3.1 0.2 0.2 - - 27.7
1983 5,680,479 25.3 16.0 7.3 1.5 0.5 - - 33.7
2002 6,008,154 35.6 17.0 14.4 3.5 0.7 - - 26.3
2003 5,691,866 35.8 16.9 14.7 3.5 0.7 - - 25.6
2004 5,817,535 36.3 16.9 15.1 3.6 0.7 - - 25.0
2005 5,990,747 37.2 17.1 15.7 3.7 0.7 - - 24.5
2006 6,022,812 38.1 17.2 16.4 3.8 0.7 - - 24.1
2007 6,381,655 39.2 16.9 17.2 3.7 0.7 0.3 0.4 24.1
2008 6,350,661 39.6 16.8 17.6 3.8 0.7 0.3 0.4 24.1
Laborers







1966 2,438,778 28.1 21.3 6.1 0.2 0.4 - - 24.0
1983 2,256,110 32.9 18.5 12.3 1.6 0.5 - - 34.3
2002 3,664,504 47.6 18.5 25.0 3.3 0.8 - - 33.7
2003 3,597,060 47.6 18.2 25.4 3.3 0.7 - - 33.4
2004 3,846,048 48.1 18.2 25.8 3.4 0.7 - - 33.2
2005 3,907,908 49.3 18.5 26.6 3.4 0.8 - - 32.7
2006 3,995,932 50.4 18.8 27.3 3.5 0.8 - - 33.0
2007 4,851,049 53.5 17.5 31.1 3.1 0.7 0.5 0.6 31.9
2008 4,753,499 52.6 17.7 29.8 3.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 32.2
Service Workers







1966 1,857,134 27.5 22.6 4.1 0.5 0.3 - - 43.1
1983 3,395,320 32.3 21.3 8.4 2.2 0.4 - - 56.1
2002 6,592,041 46.2 23.3 18.3 3.8 0.8 - - 57.7
2003 6,382,993 46.1 23.1 18.4 3.9 0.7 - - 57.9
2004 6,948,758 46.7 23.1 19.0 3.9 0.7 - - 58.4
2005 7,233,463 46.7 23.0 18.9 3.9 0.9 - - 58.5
2006 7,535,602 47.8 23.2 19.8 4.1 0.7 - - 58.3
2007 8,939,455 49.6 23.1 20.6 4.1 0.7 0.4 0.7 59.3
2008 9,353,381 49.4 22.6 20.3 4.1 0.7 0.5 1.2 59.7

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Note: Details may not add up due to rounding. 1Newly added job categories since 2007.