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Job Patterns For Minorities And Women In Private Industry: A Glossary

INDUSTRY:
Industry definitions and codes used in the tables are based upon those given in the 1997 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Manual. The industry aggregations shown in Table 1 represent the industry groups with the largest employment. The industry groups are categorized by two digit NAICS codes and are structured to allow historical comparisons. The other aggregations based on NAICS code is the three digit NAICS code, which is a more detailed explanation of the industry. There is a short title alphabetized list of NAICS code definitions to four digits (NAICSDESC).
JOB CATEGORIES:
The EEO-1 collects data on nine major job categories. They are defined below as they are defined in the EEO-1 Instruction Booklet. Further detailed definitions based on Census job titles is available in the Commission's Job Classification Guide.
Officials and managers:
Occupations requiring administrative and managerial personnel who set broad policies, exercise overall responsibility for execution of these policies, and direct individual departments or special phases of a firm's operations. Includes: officials, executives, middle management, plant managers, department managers, and superintendents, salaried supervisors who are members of management, purchasing agents and buyers, railroad conductors and yard masters, ship captains, mates and other officers, farm operators and managers, and kindred workers.
Professionals:
Occupations requiring either college graduation or experience of such kind and amount as to provide a comparable background. Includes: accountants and auditors, airplane pilots and navigators, architects, artists, chemists, designers, dietitians, editors, engineers, lawyers, librarians, mathematicians, natural scientists, registered professional nurses, personnel and labor relations specialists, physical scientists, physicians, social scientists, teachers, surveyors and kindred workers.
Technicians:
Occupations requiring a combination of basic scientific knowledge and manual skill which can be obtained through 2 years of post high school education, such as is offered in many technical institutes and junior colleges, or through equivalent on-the-job training. Includes: computer programmers, drafters, engineering aides, junior engineers, mathematical aides, licensed, practical or vocational nurses, photographers, radio operators, scientific assistants, technical illustrators, technicians (medical, dental, electronic, physical science), and kindred workers.
Sales:
Occupations engaging wholly or primarily in direct selling. Includes: advertising agents and sales workers, insurance agents and brokers, real estate agents and brokers, stock and bond sales workers, demonstrators, sales workers and sales clerks, grocery clerks, and cashiers/checkers, and kindred workers.
Office and clerical:
Includes all clerical-type work regard-less of level of difficulty, where the activities are predominantly non-manual though some manual work not directly involved with altering or transporting the products is included. Includes: bookkeepers, collectors (bills and accounts), messengers and office helpers, office machine operators (including computer), shipping and receiving clerks, stenographers, typists and secretaries, telegraph and telephone operators, legal assistants, and kindred workers.
Craft Workers (skilled):
Manual workers of relatively high skill level having a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the processes involved in their work. Exercise considerable independent judgment and usually receive an extensive period of training.  Includes: the building trades, hourly paid supervisors and lead operators who are not members of management, mechanics and repairers, skilled machining occupations, compositors and typesetters, electricians, engravers, painters (construction and maintenance), motion picture projectionists, pattern and model makers, stationary engineers, tailors and tailoresses, arts occupations, handpainters, coaters, bakers, decorating occupations, and kindred workers.
Operatives (semiskilled):
Workers who operate machine or processing equipment or perform other factory-type duties of intermediate skill level which can be mastered in a few weeks and require only limited training. Includes: apprentices (auto mechanics, plumbers, bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, machinists, mechanics, building trades, metalworking trades, printing trades, etc.), operatives, attendants (auto service and parking), blasters, chauffeurs, delivery workers, sewers and stitchers, dryers, furnace workers, heaters, laundry and dry cleaning operatives, milliners, mine operatives and laborers, motor operators, oilers and greasers (except auto), painters (manufactured articles), photographic process workers, truck and tractor drivers, knitting, looping, taping and weaving machine operators, welders and flamecutters, electrical and electronic equipment assemblers, butchers and meatcutters, inspectors, testers and graders, handpackers and packagers, and kindred workers.
Laborers (unskilled):
Workers in manual occupations which generally require no special training who perform elementary duties that may be learned in a few days and require the application of little or no independent judgment. Includes: garage laborers, car washers and greasers, groundskeepers and gardeners, farmworkers, stevedores, wood choppers, laborers performing lifting, digging, mixing, loading and pulling operations, and kindred workers.
Service workers:
Workers in both protective and non-protective service occupations. Includes: attendants (hospital and other institutions, professional and personal service, including nurses aides, and orderlies), barbers, charworkers and cleaners, cooks, counter and fountain workers, elevator operators, firefighters and fire protection, guards, door-keepers, stewards, janitors, police officers and detectives, porters, waiters and waitresses, amusement and recreation facilities attendants, guides, ushers, public transportation attendants, and kindred workers.
PARTICIPATION RATES:
Participation rates are calculated for some EEO-1 aggregate tables. The participation rate examines how a particular group (compared to other groups) is represented within a job category. These can be thought of as column percentages. Thus, if 171,235 officials and managers were Hispanic and there were a total of 4,432,169 officials and managers, the participation rate for Hispanics would be 3.9 percent ((171,235/4,432,169)*100).
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION:
Occupational distribution rates are calculated for some EEO-1 aggregate tables. The occupational distribution examines how a particular group is distributed among job groups. These can be thought of as row percentages. Thus, if 171,235 officials and managers are Hispanic and there are a total of 3,821,644 Hispanics, the occupational distribution of Hispanics as officials and managers is 4.5 percent ((171,235/3,821,644)*100).
RACE/ETHNIC IDENTIFICATION:
Race/ethnic designations as used by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission do not denote scientific definitions of anthropological origins. For the purposes of this report, an employee may be included in the group to which he or she appears to belong, identifies with, or is regarded in the community as belonging. However, no person should be counted in more than one race/ethnic group. The race/ethnic categories for the EEO-1 survey are as defined in U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards' Directive No. 15. The definitions also appear in the EEO-1 Instruction Booklet.
White (Not of Hispanic origin):
All persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.
Black (Not of Hispanic origin):
All persons having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa.
Hispanic:
All persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.
Asian or Pacific Islander:
All persons having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa.
American Indian or Alaskan Native:
All persons having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, and who maintain cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition.

Note: Figures refer to 1998.