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AMERICAN EXPERIENCES
VERSUS
AMERICAN EXPECTATIONS

An updated look at private sector employment for Women, African
Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans and American
Indians/Alaskan Natives in celebration of the EEOC's
50th Anniversary

July 2015

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:

American Experiences versus American Expectations illustrates the significant changes to the United States workforce during the 50 years since the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) opened its doors in 1965. The report is an updated look at the groundbreaking 1977 EEOC research Black Experiences Versus Black Expectations. Written by Dr. Melvin Humphrey, EEOC's then-director of Research, Black Experiences versus Black Expectations was the first major EEOC research report to use data collected through the EEO-1 survey to focus on the issue of racial inequality in the workforce. The report's title came from the gap between African American employment experiences in the workforce and expectations based on fair-share employment levels, defined at the time as the number of minorities employed at a rate equal to their employment availability.

American Experiences versus American Expectations focuses on changes in employment participation from 1966 to 2013 not only for African Americans but also for Hispanics, Asian Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and women. The participation rate represents the percentage of workers from each demographic group that hold positions in the variety of categories reported in the EEO-1 survey.

Beginning in 1966 all employers with 100 or more employees (lower thresholds apply to federal contractors) have been required by law to file the Employer Information Report EEO-1 with the EEOC. In FY 2013 approximately 70,000 employers filed an EEO-1. These forms indicate the composition of an employer's workforces by sex and by race/ethnic category[1]. The EEO-1 form collects data on nine major job categories[2].

African Americans:

  • The participation rates for African Americans in many job categories showed increases throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. However, the rate of increase slowed for several categories and the rate in the Officials and Managers as well as the Professionals categories declined during the 2000s.
  • Between 1966 and 2013, African Americans realized the greatest increase in participation in the Office and Clerical Workers category, from 3.53 percent to 15.76 percent, 12.23 percentage points.
  • African Americans in the Laborers category showed the least change in participation during this time frame. The rate decreased 2.44 percentage points, from 21.13 percent in 1966 to 18.69 percent in 2013.

Hispanics:

  • Hispanics experienced an increase in participation rates across all nine job categories from 1966 through 2013.
  • Hispanics in the Laborers category showed the largest increase in participation, from 6.14 percent in 1966 to 29.17 percent in 2013-an increase of 23.03 percentage points.
  • The smallest change for Hispanics was in the Professionals category, where the participation rate only increased by 4.97 percentage points, from 0.76 percent in 1966 to 5.73 percent in 2013.

Asian Americans:

  • Asian Americans saw consistent increases in participation rates from 1966 through 2013 in all nine job categories.
  • Asian Americans in the Professionals category showed the greatest increase, from 1.33 percent in 1966 to 11.46 percent in 2013, an increase of 10.13 percentage points. Asian Americans experienced the greatest increase in participation rate in this job category of any demographic group reported.
  • Asian Americans reported the smallest increase in participation in the Craft Workers category, from 0.35 percent in 1966 to 3.03 percent in 2013, which accounts for an increase of 2.68 percentage points.

American Indians / Alaskan Natives:

  • American Indians or Alaskan Natives, with the exception of those in the Service Workers category in 1984, reported less than a 1 percent participation rates in each of the nine job categories in most years examined.
  • The Craft Workers category was the only job category in which participation rates for American Indians or Alaskan Natives increased each year examined from 1966 to 2013.
  • The greatest participation rate for American Indians or Alaskan Natives across all job categories and years examined was in 1984 in the Service Workers category at a rate of 1.42 percent.

Women:

  • Women saw both increases and decreases in participation rates in the different job categories between 1966 and 2013.
  • Women in the Officials and Managers, Professionals, Technicians, and Sales Workers categories all showed a consistent increase in participation rates within this time period.
  • Women in the Office & Clerical Workers category showed a large increase in participation rates from 1966 to 1984, from 72.39 percent to 84.25 percent. However, this was followed by a steady decrease to 75.56 percent in 2013. Similarly, the participation rate for women in the Craft Workers category showed a consistent increase from 1966 to 2002, from 6.34 percent in 1966 to 12.81 percent in 2002, and then a decrease to 7.27 percent in 2013.
  • While there was an increase in the participation rate of women in the Officials and Managers and Professionals categories from 1990 through 2013, there was a decline in the rate of women in the Office and Clerical Workers category during the same period.
  • The participation rate for women in the Operatives category decreased from 34.15 percent in 1984 to 22.37 percent in 2013, a decrease of 11.78 in percentage points.

Changing participation rates for minorities and women in the Officials and Managers job category, the senior-most category for which EEOC captures data, are illustrative of employment conditions in the workforce from 1966 to 2013. The tables below provide a snapshot of the participation rates for each demographic group examined within this job category.

 

AFRICAN AMERICAN

Table 1 and Figure 1 show the participation rates of African American Executive/Senior and First/Mid Level Officials and Managers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 1: Participation of African American Executive/Senior and First/Mid Level Officials & Managers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

18,121

2,085,422

0.87%

1972

73,965

3,135,469

2.36%

1978

148,909

3,980,123

3.74%

1984

193,857

4,427,754

4.38%

1990

257,122

4,978,689

5.16%

1996

298,068

5,141,658

5.80%

2002

405,766

5,919,471

6.85%

2008

481,912

6,943,429

6.94%

2013

475,392

7,020,839

6.77%

Figure 1

  • In 1966, African American Officials and Managers reported a participation rate of 0.87 percent. In 2008, the rate was 6.94 percent. However, it decreased to 6.77 percent in 2013.

 

Table 2 and Figure 2 show the participation rates of African American Professionals from 1966 to 2013.

Table 2: Participation of African American Professionals

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

22,346

1,693,545

1.32%

1972

79,293

2,680,754

2.96%

1978

117,298

2,967,813

3.95%

1984

175,402

3,919,918

4.47%

1990

276,829

5,295,302

5.23%

1996

379,649

6,439,805

5.90%

2002

566,666

8,009,309

7.08%

2008

812,182

10,486,457

7.75%

2013

889,409

11,709,819

7.60%

Figure 2

  • In 1966, African American Professionals reported a participation rate of 1.32 percent.
  • The rate continued to grow to 7.75 percent in 2008 and then fell slightly to 7.60 percent in 2013.

 

Table 3 and Figure 3 show the participation rates of African American Technicians from 1966 to 2013.

Table 3: Participation of African American Technicians

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

46,542

1,142,416

4.07%

1972

98,586

1,805,846

5.46%

1978

141,844

1,731,659

8.19%

1984

181,843

2,047,100

8.88%

1990

233,563

2,360,323

9.90%

1996

279,353

2,648,850

10.55%

2002

351,850

2,992,410

11.76%

2008

448,460

3,412,541

13.14%

2013

448,795

3,388,374

13.25%

Figure 3

  • In 1966, African American Technicians reported a participation rate of 4.07 percent.
  • The participation rate has continued to grow all the way to 2013, ending at 13.25 percent.

 

Table 4 and Figure 4 show the participation rates of African American Sales Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 4: Participation of African American Sales Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

42,447

1,804,746

2.35%

1972

143,093

3,505,150

4.08%

1978

247,107

3,634,447

6.80%

1984

334,579

3,958,939

8.45%

1990

565,693

5,411,487

10.45%

1996

837,902

6,678,497

12.55%

2002

1,023,476

7,848,162

13.04%

2008

1,203,080

8,860,366

13.58%

2013

1,249,727

8,890,538

14.06%

Figure 4

  • In 1966, African American Sales Workers reported a participation rate of 2.35 percent.
  • The rate grew fastest between 1966 and 1996. It has been increasing more slowly since then.

 

Table 5 and Figure 5 show the participation rates of African American Office and Clerical Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 5: Participation of African American Office & Clerical Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

151,147

4,278,000

3.53%

1972

418,040

5,458,757

7.66%

1978

568,878

5,672,168

10.03%

1984

693,967

5,882,461

11.80%

1990

901,945

6,772,648

13.32%

1996

955,405

6,801,562

14.05%

2002

1,179,287

7,395,591

15.95%

2008

1,300,560

8,173,552

15.91%

2013

1,280,263

8,122,422

15.76%

Figure 5

  • In 1966, African American Office and Clerical Workers reported a participation rate of 3.53 percent.
  • Participation rates grew to 15.95 percent in 2002 and then began decreasing slightly.

 

Table 6 and Figure 6 show the participation rates of African American Craft Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 6: Participation of African American Craft Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

130,556

3,636,566

3.59%

1972

251,212

4,168,676

6.03%

1978

350,490

4,400,628

7.96%

1984

320,371

3,774,802

8.49%

1990

343,642

3,778,333

9.10%

1996

343,980

3,734,432

9.21%

2002

347,858

3,635,789

9.57%

2008

352,417

3,819,723

9.23%

2013

302,203

3,439,825

8.79%

Figure 6

  • In 1966, African American Craft Workers reported a participation rate of 3.59 percent.
  • Participation rates grew to 9.57 percent in 2002 but then decreased slightly, ending at 8.79 percent in 2013.

 

Table 7 and Figure 7 show the participation rates of African American Operatives from 1966 to 2013.

Table 7: Participation of African American Operatives

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

702,283

6,511,872

10.78%

1972

1,007,774

7,005,360

14.39%

1978

1,180,640

7,327,819

16.11%

1984

976,336

6,042,013

16.16%

1990

1,029,844

6,123,371

16.82%

1996

1,067,355

6,402,279

16.67%

2002

1,022,488

6,008,154

17.02%

2008

1,064,200

6,350,661

16.76%

2013

1,024,831

5,992,058

17.10%

Figure 7

  • In 1966, African American Operatives reported a participation rate of 10.78 percent. Participation rates grew sharply to 1978 and then began to plateau all the way to 2013.

 

Table 8 and Figure 8 show the participation rates of African American Laborers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 8: Participation of African American Laborers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

524,053

2,479,935

21.13%

1972

588,064

2,828,219

20.79%

1978

574,094

3,014,617

19.04%

1984

442,180

2,396,617

18.45%

1990

555,156

2,853,280

19.46%

1996

638,149

3,335,867

19.13%

2002

679,193

3,664,504

18.53%

2008

842,846

4,753,499

17.73%

2013

792,837

4,240,925

18.69%

Figure 8

  • In 1966, African American Laborers reported a participation rate of 21.13 percent.
  • Participation rates decreased to 18.45 percent in 1984, rose again in 1990, decreased to 2008, and finally rose again to 18.69 percent in 2013.

 

Table 9 and Figure 9 show the participation rates of African American Service Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 9: Participation of African American Service Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

452,180

1,962,292

23.04%

1972

588,355

2,405,023

24.46%

1978

721,790

3,370,467

21.42%

1984

763,405

3,459,684

22.07%

1990

1,088,931

4,543,095

23.97%

1996

1,335,158

5,606,678

23.81%

2002

1,535,387

6,592,041

23.29%

2008

2,114,412

9,353,381

22.61%

2013

2,352,908

10,081,156

23.34%

Figure 9

  • Participation rates for African American Service Workers have been fluctuating, but overall there was a net gain of 0.30 percentage points.

 

HISPANIC

Table 10 and Figure 10 show the participation rates of Hispanic Executive/Senior Level and First/Mid Level Officials and Managers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 10: Participation of Hispanic Executive/Senior Level and First/Mid Level Officials and Managers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

12,690

2,085,422

0.61%

1972

40,713

3,135,469

1.30%

1978

80,535

3,980,123

2.02%

1984

110,356

4,427,754

2.49%

1990

150,471

4,978,689

3.02%

1996

193,718

5,141,658

3.77%

2002

312,251

5,919,471

5.27%

2008

520,957

6,943,429

7.50%

2013

518,776

7,020,839

7.39%

Figure 10

  • Participation rate for Hispanic officials and managers increased each year examined up to 2008.
  • From 2008 to 2013, the participation rate dropped very slightly by 0.11 percentage points.
  • The largest participation change was between 2002 and 2008 with an increase of 2.22 percentage points.

 

Table 11 and Figure 11 show the participation rates of Hispanic Professionals from 1966 to 2013.

Table 11: Participation of Hispanic Professionals

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

12,860

1,693,545

0.76%

1972

35,872

2,680,754

1.34%

1978

53,356

2,967,813

1.80%

1984

81,683

3,919,918

2.08%

1990

134,926

5,295,302

2.55%

1996

201,845

6,439,805

3.13%

2002

328,706

8,009,309

4.10%

2008

542,785

10,486,457

5.18%

2013

670,656

11,709,819

5.73%

Figure 11

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Professionals increased each year examined.
  • The largest participation increase was between 2002 and 2008 with an increase of 1.08 percentage points.

 

Table 12 and Figure 12 show the participation rates of Hispanic Technicians from 1966 to 2013.

Table 12: Participation of Hispanic Technicians

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

15,457

1,142,416

1.35%

1972

34,897

1,805,846

1.93%

1978

56,341

1,731,659

3.25%

1984

77,647

2,047,100

3.79%

1990

105,918

2,360,323

4.49%

1996

144,504

2,648,850

5.46%

2002

215,967

2,992,410

7.22%

2008

306,165

3,412,541

8.97%

2013

340,748

3,388,374

10.06%

Figure 12

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Technicians increased each year examined.
  • The largest participation change was between 1996 and 2002 with an increase of 1.76 percentage points.

 

Table 13 and Figure 13 show the participation rates of Hispanic Sales Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 13: Participation of Hispanic Sales Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

25,882

1,804,746

1.43%

1972

76,712

3,505,150

2.19%

1978

125,153

3,634,447

3.44%

1984

186,322

3,958,939

4.71%

1990

321,669

5,411,487

5.94%

1996

510,842

6,678,497

7.65%

2002

766,998

7,848,162

9.77%

2008

1,079,810

8,860,366

12.19%

2013

1,219,458

8,890,538

13.72%

Figure 13

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Sales Workers increased each year examined.
  • The largest participation rate of change was between 2002 and 2008 with an increase of 2.42 percentage points.

 

Table 14 and Figure 14 show the participation rates of Hispanic Office and Clerical Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 14: Participation of Hispanic Office & Clerical Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

70,514

4,278,000

1.65%

1972

160,827

5,458,757

2.95%

1978

233,142

5,672,168

4.11%

1984

299,329

5,882,461

5.09%

1990

401,519

6,772,648

5.93%

1996

495,361

6,801,562

7.28%

2002

720,178

7,395,591

9.74%

2008

990,251

8,173,552

12.12%

2013

1,064,374

8,122,422

13.10%

Figure 14

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Office and Clerical Workers increased each year examined.
  • The largest participation increase was between 1996 and 2002 with an increase of 2.46 percentage points.

 

Table 15 and Figure 15 show the participation rates of Hispanic Craft Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 15: Participation of Hispanic Craft Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

71,995

3,636,566

1.98%

1972

142,295

4,168,676

3.41%

1978

206,151

4,400,628

4.68%

1984

205,721

3,774,802

5.45%

1990

238,422

3,778,333

6.31%

1996

282,731

3,734,432

7.57%

2002

385,746

3,635,789

10.61%

2008

593,976

3,819,723

15.55%

2013

546,991

3,439,825

15.90%

Figure 15

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Craft Workers increased each year examined.
  • The largest participation rate of change was between 2002 and 2008 with an increase of 4.94 percentage points.

 

Table 16 and Figure 16 show the participation rates of Hispanic Operatives from 1966 to 2013.

Table 16: Participation of Hispanic Operatives

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

203,323

6,511,872

3.12%

1972

351,788

7,005,360

5.02%

1978

474,361

7,327,819

6.47%

1984

444,612

6,042,013

7.36%

1990

533,338

6,123,371

8.71%

1996

667,958

6,402,279

10.43%

2002

864,085

6,008,154

14.38%

2008

1,115,902

6,350,661

17.57%

2013

1,050,378

5,992,058

17.53%

Figure 16

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Operatives increased each year examined up to 2008.
  • The participation rate declined slightly by 0.04 percentage points between 2008 and 2013.
  • The largest participation rate of change was between 1996 and 2002 with an increase of 3.95 percentage points.

 

Table 17 and Figure 17 show the participation rates of Hispanic Laborers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 17: Participation of Hispanic Laborers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

152,206

2,479,935

6.14%

1972

252,256

2,828,219

8.92%

1978

333,663

3,014,617

11.07%

1984

283,335

2,396,617

11.82%

1990

417,283

2,853,280

14.62%

1996

625,465

3,335,867

18.75%

2002

915,147

3,664,504

24.97%

2008

1,415,804

4,753,499

29.78%

2013

1,237,175

4,240,925

29.17%

Figure 17

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Laborers increased each year examined up to 2008.
  • The participation rate declined slightly by 0.61 percentage points between 2008 and 2013.
  • The largest participation rate of change was between 1996 and 2002 with an increase of 6.22 percentage points.

 

Table 18 and Figure 18 show the participation rates of Hispanic Service Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 18: Participation of Hispanic Service Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

78,752

1,962,292

4.01%

1972

148,853

2,405,023

6.19%

1978

236,473

3,370,467

7.02%

1984

299,917

3,459,684

8.67%

1990

524,044

4,543,095

11.53%

1996

812,993

5,606,678

14.50%

2002

1,209,174

6,592,041

18.34%

2008

1,902,627

9,353,381

20.34%

2013

2,062,260

10,081,156

20.46%

Figure 18

  • Participation rate for Hispanic Service Workers increased each year examined.
  • The largest participation rate of change was between 1996 and 2002 with an increase of 3.84 percentage points.

 

ASIAN AMERICAN

Table 19 and Figure 19 show the participation rates of Asian Officials and Managers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 19: Participation of Asian Officials & Managers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

6,694

2,085,422

0.32%

1972

11,581

3,135,469

0.37%

1978

32,600

3,980,123

0.82%

1984

57,421

4,427,754

1.30%

1990

93,742

4,978,689

1.88%

1996

123,088

5,141,658

2.39%

2002

196,092

5,919,471

3.31%

2008

317,644

6,943,429

4.57%

2013

388,039

7,020,839

5.53%

Figure 19

  • The participation rate for Asian Officials and Managers grew each year examined, from 1966 to 2013, at a relatively constant rate.

 

Table 20 and Figure 20 show the participation rates of Asian Professionals from 1966 to 2013.

Table 20: Participation of Asian Professionals

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

22,453

1,693,545

1.33%

1972

58,984

2,680,754

2.20%

1978

95,430

2,967,813

3.22%

1984

157,337

3,919,918

4.01%

1990

261,736

5,295,302

4.94%

1996

412,125

6,439,805

6.40%

2002

673,953

8,009,309

8.41%

2008

1,097,443

10,486,457

10.47%

2013

1,341,842

11,709,819

11.46%

Figure 20

  • The participation rate for Asian Professionals grew steadily each year examined, with a net increase of 10.13 percentage points.

 

Table 21 and Figure 21 show the participation rates of Asian Technicians from 1966 to 2013.

Table 21: Participation of Asian Technicians

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

10,527

1,142,416

0.92%

1972

17,839

1,805,846

0.99%

1978

34,632

1,731,659

2.00%

1984

59,692

2,047,100

2.92%

1990

91,066

2,360,323

3.86%

1996

126,926

2,648,850

4.79%

2002

171,648

2,992,410

5.74%

2008

224,161

3,412,541

6.57%

2013

229,488

3,388,374

6.77%

Figure 21

  • The participation rate for Asian Technicians grew slightly from 1966 to 1972.
  • The rate grew more rapidly from 1972 to 2008, when it started to level off. The overall increase from 1966 to 2013 was 5.85 percentage points.

 

Table 22 and Figure 22 show the participation rates of Asian Sales Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 22: Participation of Asian Sales Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

6,554

1,804,746

0.36%

1972

14,358

3,505,150

0.41%

1978

33,114

3,634,447

0.91%

1984

53,538

3,958,939

1.35%

1990

106,707

5,411,487

1.97%

1996

171,551

6,678,497

2.57%

2002

266,751

7,848,162

3.40%

2008

354,044

8,860,366

4.00%

2013

354,111

8,890,538

3.98%

Figure 22

  • The participation rates for Asian Sales Workers increased slightly from 1966 to 1972. It then increased steadily to 2008 when it started to plateau.
  • The net gain is 3.62 percentage points.

 

Table 23 and Figure 23 show the participation rates of Asian Office & Clerical Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 23: Participation of Asian Office & Clerical Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

25,463

4,278,000

0.60%

1972

48,313

5,458,757

0.89%

1978

86,359

5,672,168

1.52%

1984

116,987

5,882,461

1.99%

1990

182,913

6,772,648

2.70%

1996

222,634

6,801,562

3.27%

2002

286,000

7,395,591

3.87%

2008

373,218

8,173,552

4.57%

2013

371,973

8,122,422

4.58%

Figure 23

  • Participation of Asian Office and Clerical Workers increased steadily from 1966 to 2008 when it leveled off.

 

Table 24 and Figure 24 show the participation rates of Asian Craft Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 24: Participation of Asian Craft Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

12,617

3,636,566

0.35%

1972

12,683

4,168,676

0.30%

1978

28,026

4,400,628

0.64%

1984

38,922

3,774,802

1.03%

1990

56,661

3,778,333

1.50%

1996

70,304

3,734,432

1.88%

2002

88,438

3,635,789

2.43%

2008

109,835

3,819,723

2.88%

2013

104,057

3,439,825

3.03%

Figure 24

  • The participation rate for Asian Craft Workers increased steadily from 1972 to 2008 after decreasing slightly from 1966 to 1972.
  • Over the entire time period the participation rate increased a total of 2.68 percentage points.

 

Table 25 and Figure 25 show the participation rates of Asian Operatives from 1966 to 2013.

Table 25: Participation of Asian Operatives

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

16,905

6,511,872

0.26%

1972

21,863

7,005,360

0.31%

1978

63,060

7,327,819

0.86%

1984

100,458

6,042,013

1.66%

1990

146,615

6,123,371

2.39%

1996

205,982

6,402,279

3.22%

2002

209,708

6,008,154

3.49%

2008

264,027

6,350,661

4.16%

2013

261,394

5,992,058

4.36%

Figure 25

  • The participation rate for Asian Operatives increased slightly in the first and last year examined and increased at a faster rate during the intervening years examined.
  • The net increase over the entire time period is 4.10 percentage points.

 

Table 26 and Figure 26 show the participation rates of Asian Laborers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 26: Participation of Asian Laborers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

12,529

2,479,935

0.51%

1972

10,967

2,828,219

0.39%

1978

31,981

3,014,617

1.06%

1984

41,830

2,396,617

1.75%

1990

64,598

2,853,280

2.26%

1996

102,919

3,335,867

3.09%

2002

121,832

3,664,504

3.32%

2008

175,052

4,753,499

3.68%

2013

179,188

4,240,925

4.23%

Figure 26

  • After a slight decrease from 1966 to 1972, the participation rate for Asian laborers steadily increased from 1972 to 2013 for a net gain of 3.72 percentage points over the entire time period.

 

Table 27 and Figure 27 show the participation rates of Asian Service Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 27: Participation of Asian Service Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

15,722

1,962,292

0.80%

1972

21,732

2,405,023

0.90%

1978

58,881

3,370,467

1.75%

1984

83,951

3,459,684

2.43%

1990

133,167

4,543,095

2.93%

1996

193,259

5,606,678

3.45%

2002

252,716

6,592,041

3.83%

2008

425,858

9,353,381

4.55%

2013

478,878

10,081,156

4.75%

Figure 27

  • The participation rate for Asian Service Workers continuously increased each year examined from 1966 to 2013 for a net gain of 3.95 percentage points.

 

AMERICAN INDIAN / ALASKAN NATIVE

Table 28 and Figure 28 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Officials & Managers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 28: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Officials & Managers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

2,799

2,085,422

0.13%

1972

7,692

3,135,469

0.25%

1978

13,951

3,980,123

0.35%

1984

16,333

4,427,754

0.37%

1990

16,588

4,978,689

0.33%

1996

18,878

5,141,658

0.37%

2002

23,870

5,919,471

0.40%

2008

28,060

6,943,429

0.40%

2013

26,787

7,020,839

0.38%

Figure 28

  • Participation rates for American Indian/Alaskan Native Officials and Managers fluctuated for each of the years examined.
  • The highest percentage point increase was 0.12 percentage points between 1966 and 1972.

 

Table 29 and Figure 29 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Professionals from 1966 to 2013.

Table 29: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Professionals

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

1,686

1,693,545

0.10%

1972

4,734

2,680,754

0.18%

1978

7,383

2,967,813

0.25%

1984

9,284

3,919,918

0.24%

1990

14,672

5,295,302

0.28%

1996

21,606

6,439,805

0.34%

2002

32,871

8,009,309

0.41%

2008

40,172

10,486,457

0.38%

2013

44,511

11,709,819

0.38%

Figure 29

  • Participation rates for American Indian/Alaskan Native Professionals were highest in 2002 at 0.41 percent.
  • The highest rate increase was 0.08 percentage points between 1966 and 1972.

 

Table 30 and Figure 30 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Technicians from 1966 to 2013.

Table 30: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Technicians

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

1,793

1,142,416

0.16%

1972

3,699

1,805,846

0.20%

1978

6,504

1,731,659

0.38%

1984

8,085

2,047,100

0.39%

1990

10,217

2,360,323

0.43%

1996

13,598

2,648,850

0.51%

2002

19,774

2,992,410

0.66%

2008

20,398

3,412,541

0.60%

2013

19,458

3,388,374

0.57%

Figure 30

  • Participation rates for American Indian/Alaskan Native Technicians increased each year examined from 0.16 percent in 1966 to 0.66 percent in 2002. The rate dropped to 0.57 percent in 2013.
  • The highest increase in participation rate was 0.18 percentage points between 1972 and 1978.

 

Table 31 and Figure 31 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Sales Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 31: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Sales Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

3,841

1,804,746

0.21%

1972

9,114

3,505,150

0.26%

1978

10,968

3,634,447

0.30%

1984

11,746

3,958,939

0.30%

1990

22,791

5,411,487

0.42%

1996

41,770

6,678,497

0.63%

2002

50,824

7,848,162

0.65%

2008

57,971

8,860,366

0.65%

2013

57,373

8,890,538

0.65%

Figure 31

  • Participation rates for American Indian/Alaskan Natives either increased or remained the same each year examined.
  • From 2002 to 2013, the participation rate remained consistent at its highest at 0.65 percent.
  • From 1966 to 2013, the participation rate increased for a total of 0.44 percentage points.

 

Table 32 and Figure 32 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Office & Clerical Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 32: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Office & Clerical Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

5,184

4,278,000

0.12%

1972

12,765

5,458,757

0.23%

1978

20,860

5,672,168

0.37%

1984

20,529

5,882,461

0.35%

1990

25,497

6,772,648

0.38%

1996

32,180

6,801,562

0.47%

2002

44,205

7,395,591

0.60%

2008

44,940

8,173,552

0.55%

2013

44,323

8,122,422

0.55%

Figure 32

  • Participation rates for American Indians/Alaskan Native Office and Clerical Workers fluctuated each year examined.
  • The highest participation rate reached in this job category was 0.60 percent in 2002.
  • After 2002, the participation rate dropped and remained consistent at 0.55 percent for each subsequent year examined.

Table 33 and Figure 33 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Craft Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 33: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Craft Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

8,228

3,636,566

0.23%

1972

15,047

4,168,676

0.36%

1978

20,736

4,400,628

0.47%

1984

18,585

3,774,802

0.49%

1990

20,927

3,778,333

0.55%

1996

24,425

3,734,432

0.65%

2002

26,568

3,635,789

0.73%

2008

31,225

3,819,723

0.82%

2013

29,076

3,439,825

0.85%

Figure 33

  • Participation rate for American Indian/Alaskan Native Craft Workers increased each year examined from 1966 to 2013.
  • The highest participation rate increase was 0.13 percentage points between 1966 and 1972.

 

Table 34 and Figure 34 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Operatives from 1966 to 2013.

Table 34: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Operators

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

15,527

6,511,872

0.24%

1972

28,877

7,005,360

0.41%

1978

33,714

7,327,819

0.46%

1984

29,285

6,042,013

0.48%

1990

33,475

6,123,371

0.55%

1996

40,457

6,402,279

0.63%

2002

41,959

6,008,154

0.70%

2008

43,910

6,350,661

0.69%

2013

39,321

5,992,058

0.66%

Figure 34

  • Participation rates for American Indian/Alaskan Native Operatives increased each year examined from 1966 to 2002. The rates dropped in subsequent years.
  • The highest participation rate increase was 0.17 percentage points between 1966 and 1972.

 

Table 35 and Figure 35 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Laborers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 35: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Laborers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

10,520

2,479,935

0.42%

1972

15,685

2,828,219

0.55%

1978

17,490

3,014,617

0.58%

1984

13,338

2,396,617

0.56%

1990

18,968

2,853,280

0.66%

1996

24,558

3,335,867

0.74%

2002

27,784

3,664,504

0.76%

2008

32,784

4,753,499

0.69%

2013

26,423

4,240,925

0.62%

Figure 35

  • Participation rates for American Indian/Alaskan Native Laborers fluctuated each year examined from 1966 to 2013.
  • The highest participation rate was 0.76 percent reported in 2002.
  • The participation rate dropped each year examined after 2002.

Table 36 and Figure 36 show the participation rates of American Indian / Alaskan Native Service Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 36: Participation of American Indian / Alaskan Native Service Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

5,415

1,962,292

0.28%

1972

9,844

2,405,023

0.41%

1978

14,385

3,370,467

0.43%

1984

49,096

3,459,684

1.42%

1990

25,854

4,543,095

0.57%

1996

42,975

5,606,678

0.77%

2002

50,603

6,592,041

0.77%

2008

61,939

9,353,381

0.66%

2013

67,440

10,081,156

0.67%

Figure 36

  • Participation rates for American Indian/Alaskan Native Service Workers were mostly under one percent, with the exception of 1984 at 1.42 percent.
  • The highest participation rate increase was nearly one percentage point between 1978 and 1984.

 

WOMEN

Table 37 and Figure 37 show the participation rates of Women Officials and Managers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 37: Participation of Women Officials & Managers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

196,745

2,085,422

9.43%

1972

372,316

3,135,469

11.87%

1978

690,349

3,980,123

17.34%

1984

1,055,288

4,427,754

23.83%

1990

1,460,009

4,978,689

29.33%

1996

1,716,444

5,141,658

33.38%

2002

2,155,878

5,919,471

36.42%

2008

2,600,325

6,943,429

37.45%

2013

2,707,827

7,020,839

38.57%

 

Figure 37

  • In 1966, Women Officials and Managers reported a participation rate of 9.43 percent.
  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 17.34 percent and continued to rise to 29.33 percent in 1990, 36.42 percent in 2002, and finally to 38.57 percent in 2013.

Table 38 and Figure 38 show the participation rates of Women Professionals from 1966 to 2013.

Table 38: Participation of Women Professionals

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

236,599

1,693,545

13.97%

1972

726,450

2,680,754

27.10%

1978

1,005,855

2,967,813

33.89%

1984

1,636,015

3,919,918

41.74%

1990

2,522,185

5,295,302

47.63%

1996

3,255,902

6,439,805

50.56%

2002

4,143,461

8,009,309

51.73%

2008

5,554,102

10,486,457

52.96%

2013

6,233,163

11,709,819

53.23%


Figure 38

  • In 1966, Women Professionals reported a participation rate of 13.97 percent.
  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 33.89 percent and continued to rise to 47.63 percent in 1990, 51.73 percent in 2002, and to 53.23 percent in 2013.

 

Table 39 and Figure 39 show the participation rates of Women Technicians from 1966 to 2013.

Table 39: Participation of Women Technicians

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

355,105

1,142,416

31.08%

1972

514,961

1,805,846

28.52%

1978

649,149

1,731,659

37.49%

1984

854,832

2,047,100

41.76%

1990

1,025,098

2,360,323

43.43%

1996

1,187,081

2,648,850

44.81%

2002

1,372,139

2,992,410

45.85%

2008

1,644,537

3,412,541

48.19%

2013

1,670,322

3,388,374

49.30%

Figure 39

  • In 1966, Women Technicians reported a participation rate of 31.08 percent.
  • Between 1966 and 1972 the participation rate decreased to 28.52 percent and then increased each subsequent year examined.

 

Table 40 and Figure 40 show the participation rates of Women Sales Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 40: Participation of Women Sales Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

699,303

1,804,746

38.75%

1972

1,436,375

3,505,150

40.98%

1978

1,842,946

3,634,447

50.71%

1984

2,136,242

3,958,939

53.96%

1990

3,080,196

5,411,487

56.92%

1996

3,830,135

6,678,497

57.35%

2002

4,424,429

7,848,162

56.38%

2008

4,997,834

8,860,366

56.41%

2013

4,953,211

8,890,538

55.71%

Figure 40

  • In 1966, Women Sales Workers reported a participation rate of 38.75 percent.
  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 50.71 percent and continued to rise to a peak of 57.35 percent in 1996.
  • In 2002, the participation rate dropped to 56.38 percent and continued to drop to 55.71 percent in 2013.

 

Table 41 and Figure 41 show the participation rates of Women Office and Clerical Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 41: Participation of Women Office & Clerical Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

3,096,691

4,278,000

72.39%

1972

4,274,075

5,458,757

78.30%

1978

4,661,510

5,672,168

82.18%

1984

4,955,730

5,882,461

84.25%

1990

5,680,472

6,772,648

83.87%

1996

5,594,990

6,801,562

82.26%

2002

5,935,861

7,395,591

80.26%

2008

6,428,786

8,173,552

78.65%

2013

6,137,526

8,122,422

75.56%

Figure 41

  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 82.18 percent and continued to rise to a peak of 84.25 percent in 1984.
  • In 1996, the participation rate of Women Office and Clerical Workers dropped to 82.26 percent and continued to drop to 75.56 percent in 2013.

 

Table 42 and Figure 42 show the participation rates of Women Craft Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 42: Participation of Women Craft Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

230,596

3,636,566

6.34%

1972

290,310

4,168,676

6.96%

1978

378,470

4,400,628

8.60%

1984

352,041

3,774,802

9.33%

1990

389,316

3,778,333

10.30%

1996

440,578

3,734,432

11.80%

2002

465,875

3,635,789

12.81%

2008

344,608

3,819,723

9.02%

2013

250,147

3,439,825

7.27%

Figure 42

  • In 1966, Women Craft Workers reported a participation rate of 6.34 percent.
  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 8.60 percent and continued to rise to a peak of 12.81 percent in 2002.
  • In 2008, the participation rate of Women Craft Workers dropped to 9.0 percent and continued to drop to 7.27 percent in 2013.

Table 43 and Figure 43 show the participation rates of Women Operatives from 1966 to2013.

Table 43: Participation of Women Operatives

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

1,799,913

6,511,872

27.64%

1972

2,043,214

7,005,360

29.17%

1978

2,333,500

7,327,819

31.84%

1984

2,063,327

6,042,013

34.15%

1990

1,952,341

6,123,371

31.88%

1996

1,866,809

6,402,279

29.16%

2002

1,581,174

6,008,154

26.32%

2008

1,531,199

6,350,661

24.11%

2013

1,340,289

5,992,058

22.37%

Figure 43

  • In 1966, Women Operatives reported a participation rate of 27.64 percent.
  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 31.84 percent and continued to rise to a peak of 34.15 percent in 1984.
  • In 1990, the participation rate of Women Operatives dropped to 31.88 percent and continued to drop to 22.37 percent in 2013.

 

Table 44 and Figure 44 show the participation rates of Women Laborers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 44: Participation of Women Laborers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

592,463

2,479,935

23.89%

1972

811,683

2,828,219

28.70%

1978

1,022,106

3,014,617

33.91%

1984

821,331

2,396,617

34.27%

1990

957,895

2,853,280

33.57%

1996

1,117,009

3,335,867

33.48%

2002

1,234,094

3,664,504

33.68%

2008

1,531,259

4,753,499

32.21%

2013

1,296,346

4,240,925

30.57%

Figure 44

  • In 1966, Women Laborers reported a participation rate of 23.89 percent.
  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 33.91 percent and continued to rise to a peak of 34.27 percent in 1984.
  • In 1996, the participation rate of Women Laborers dropped to 33.48 percent, rose slightly to 33.68 percent in 2002, and then continued to drop to 30.57 percent in 2013.

Table 45 and Figure 45 show the participation rates of Women Service Workers from 1966 to 2013.

Table 45: Participation of Women Service Workers

Year Participation Total Rate

1966

848,782

1,962,292

43.25%

1972

1,196,338

2,405,023

49.74%

1978

1,839,308

3,370,467

54.57%

1984

1,889,711

3,459,684

54.62%

1990

2,535,274

4,543,095

55.80%

1996

3,189,222

5,606,678

56.88%

2002

3,802,809

6,592,041

57.69%

2008

5,585,885

9,353,381

59.72%

2013

6,030,694

10,081,156

59.82%

Figure 45

  • In 1966, Women Service Workers reported a participation rate of 43.25 percent.
  • In 1978, the participation rate rose to 54.57 percent and continued to rise to 55.80 percent in 1990, 57.69 percent in 2002, and finally to 59.82 percent in 2013.

 

Appendix A:

For this report, EEOC gathered data for the years 1966 to 2013 in six-year intervals except between 2008 and 2013. The 1966 data is from EEO Report No. 1 "Job Patterns for Minorities and Women in the Private Industry 1966," while the rest of the data is from EEO-1 statistical files (using single establishment reports and the consolidated report for multi-establishment firms). The Executive/Senior level and First/Mid level Officials and Managers job categories were combined after 2007 to match prior years.

The major job categories are listed below including a brief description of the skills required for occupations in each category. The descriptions below are illustrative and not intended to be exhaustive of all job titles in a job category. For more information concerning the job categories see Appendix B.

Executive/Senior Level Officials and Managers: Individuals who plan, direct, and formulate policies, set strategy and provide the overall direction of enterprises/organizations for the development and delivery of products or services, within the parameters approved by boards of directors or other governing bodies.

First/Mid Level Officials and Managers: Individuals who serve as managers, other than those who serve as Executive/Senior Level Officials and Managers, including those who oversee and direct the delivery of products, services, or functions at group, regional, or divisional levels of organizations.

Professionals: Most jobs in this category require bachelor and graduate degrees and/or professional certification. In some instances, comparable experience may establish qualifications.

Technicians: Jobs in this category include activities that require applied scientific skills, usually obtained by post secondary education of varying lengths, depending on the particular occupation, recognizing that in some instances additional training, certification, or comparable experience is required.

Sales Workers: These jobs include non-managerial activities that wholly and primarily involve direct sales.

Administrative Support Workers: These jobs involve non-managerial tasks providing administrative and support assistance, primarily in office settings.

Craft Workers (formerly Craft Workers (Skilled)): Most jobs in this category include higher skilled occupations in construction (building trades craft workers and their formal apprentices) and natural resource extraction workers.

Operatives (formerly Operatives (Semi-skilled)): Most jobs in this category include intermediate skilled occupations and include workers who operate machines or factory-related processing equipment.

Laborers and Helpers (formerly Laborers (Unskilled)): Jobs in this category include workers with more limited skills who require only brief training to perform tasks that require little or no independent judgment.

Service Workers: Jobs in this category include food service, cleaning service, personal service, and protective service activities.

For more detailed information on the data presented in this report and well as other employment surveys collected by EEOC, please refer to http://www.eeoc.gov/employers/reporting.cfm for reporting requirements and http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/employment/index.cfm for the results of these surveys.



[1] The sex and ethnic categories are Male, Female, White (not of Hispanic origin), African American (not of Hispanic origin), Hispanic, Asian American or Pacific Islander (Asian American) and American Indian or Alaskan Native.

[2]The job categories are (1) officials and managers, (2) professionals, (3) technicians, (4) sales workers, (5) office and clerical workers, (6) craft workers, (7) operatives, (8) laborers, and (9) service workers. For more information about the job categories and the EEO-1 survey, please see Appendix A.