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Indicators over Time

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission


This section presents patterns of equal employment opportunity for minorities and women in the U.S. private sector since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The data series begins in 1966 and continues to the most recent year available (2007). Employment numbers and participation rates before 2005 were cited from "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity – Status and Trends, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2004". Due to its unique racial and ethnicity composition, the state of Hawaii was excluded from all levels of aggregates prior to 2007. An Appendix at the end of this section provides detailed information on the historical EEO patterns and trends in table format by year.

For the first time in 2007, separate data on the new race and occupational groups is contained in EE0-1 aggregates. However, readers should bear in mind that in prior years, data on Asians included Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders and no data was reported on persons of Two or More Races. Readers should also be aware that the previous Officials & Managers job category was divided into two levels in the 2007 survey: Executive/Senior Level and First/Mid Level. As a result, care should be exercised when comparing current year data to data from previous years.

List of Major Charts and Tables

APPENDICES

List of Historical Tables

T1 Private Sector Employment of Women vs. Men (1966-2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year
1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 2007

Men

68.8 61.6 53.9 52.6 51.6 51.6

Women

31.2 38.4 46.1 47.4 48.4 48.4

*** Between 1966 and 2007, the overall participation rate for women in private sector rose from 31.2 percent to 48.4 percent, an increase of 17.2 percentage points over four decades since EEOC first started collecting employment data from the sector.

T2 Private Sector Employment of Minority vs. Non-Minority (1966-2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year
1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 2007

Non-Minority

88.8 84.5 79.6 74.4 68.0 66.8

Minority

11.2 15.5 20.4 25.6 32.0 33.2

**** In 1966, about 11.2 percent of the private sector employees in the EEO-1 survey consisted of Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or American Indians. This rate of minority employment nearly tripled to 33.2 percent in 2007.

T3 Private Sector Employment by Minority Groups (1966-2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year
1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 2007

Blacks

8.2 10.0 12.0 13.1 14.0 14.0

Hispanics

2.5 4.2 5.8 8.4 12.4 13.8

Asians, Pacific Islanders

0.3 0.9 2.2 3.5 5.0 4.8

American Indians, Alaskan Natives

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6

Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders

- - - - - 0.2

Two Or More Races

- - - - - 0.2

* * * Among the four minority groups continuously measured in EEO-1 survey, the employment rate for Black or African Americans increased steadily from 8.2 percent in 1966 to 14.0 percent in 2007. Hispanics or Latinos had the fastest growth rate in the private sector, increasing from 2.5 percent to 13.8 percent between 1966 and 2007.

Two additional race categories were added to 2007 EEO-1 survey as shown in the table above. The Asian category before 2007 included both Asians, Pacific Islanders and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders.

T4. Officials and Managers in Private Sector, Women vs. Men
(1966, 1983, 2002, 2006, 2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, 2004.

Year *
1966 1983 2002 2006 2007

Men (%)

90.7 77.1 63.6 62.7 62.8

Women (%)

9.3 22.9 36.4 37.3 37.2

* * In 1966, the first year when EEO data is available on private sector, women occupied 9.3 percent of the total Official and Manager positions in the EEO-1 survey. This figure went up to 37.2 percent in 2007, an increase of 37.2 percentage points within four decades.

Note: Years selected from available data.

T5. Officials and Managers in Private Sector, Minority vs. Non-Minority
(1966, 1983, 2002, 2006, 2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year *
1966 1983 2002 2006 2007

Minority (%)

1.8 8.2 15.8 17.7 19.5

Non-Minority (%)

98.2 91.8 84.2 82.3 80.5

* * * People of minority groups accounted for 1.8 percent of the total Official and Manager positions as reported in the 1966 EEO-1 survey of private sector. This rate increased nearly tenfold to 19.5 percent in 2007.

Note: Years selected from available data.

T6. Officers and Managers in Private Sector by Minority Groups
(1966, 1983, 2002, 2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year *
1966 1983 2002 2007

Blacks

0.9 4.3 6.9 7.0

Hispanics

0.6 2.4 5.3 7.6

Asians, Pacific Islanders

0.2 1.2 3.3 4.1

American Indians, Alaskan Natives

0.1 0.3 0.4 0.4

Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders

- - - 0.2

Two Or More Races

- - - 0.3

* * * Since 1966, shares of minorities occupying Official and Manager positions have risen along with their employment rate in the private sector. Black officials and managers rose from 0.9 percent in 1966 to 7.0 percent in 2007; Hispanic officials and managers, from 0.6 percent to 4.1 percent; Asian officials and managers, from 0.2 percent to 7.6 percent; and American Indian officials and managers, from 0.1 percent to 0.4 percent.

Note: Years selected from available data.

T7. Professionals in Private Sector, Women vs. Men
(1966, 1983, 2002, 2006, 2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year *
1966 1983 2002 2006 2007

Men (%)

79.5 59.3 48.3 47.5 47.2

Women (%)

20.5 40.7 51.7 52.5 52.8

*** Nationwide, one-in-five or 20.5 percent of the total Professional positions in the private sector were held by women in 1966. These figures rose up to one-in-two and 52.8 percent in 2007 as reported in EEO-1 survey.

Note: Years selected from available data.

T8. Professionals in Private Sector, Minority vs. Non-Minority
(1966, 1983, 2002, 2006, 2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year *
1966 1983 2002 2006 2007

Minority (%)

3.9 10.6 20.0 22.6 23.6

Non-Minority (%)

96.1 89.4 80.0 77.4 76.4

*** Between 1966 and 2007, minorities employed as professionals in the private sector rose from 3.9 percent to 23.6 percent, at a pace faster than their employment growth from 11.2 percent to 34.0 percent within the same time period (Also see Appendix II).

Note: Years selected from available data.

T9. Women in Private Sector by Selected Job Categories
(1966, 1983, 2002, 2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year
1966 1983 2002 2006 2007

Sales Workers

38.8 53.6 56.4 56.9 56.7

Office/Clerical

72.0 84.4 80.3 79.3 79.0

Service Workers

43.1 56.1 57.7 58.3 59.5

Total Employment

31.2 43.8 48.2 48.4 48.4

* * * Compared to their total employment rate, women have been well represented historically in job categories such as Office/Clerical Workers, Service Workers and Sales Workers in the private sector. This occupational trend of gender groups continued to 2007 as more women entered the private labor force.

Note: Years selected from available data.

T10. Minorities in Private Sector by Selected Job Categories
1966,1983, 2002, 2007)

U.S. Summary

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Year *
1966 1983 2002 2006 2007

Operatives

14.3 25.3 35.6 35.8 39.2

Laborers

28.1 32.9 47.6 47.6 53.4

Service Workers

27.5 32.3 46.2 46.1 49.6

Total Employment

11.2 18.7 29.7 29.9 34.0

* * * Historically, minorities have been well represented in occupations such as Laborers, Service Workers, and Operatives in the private sector. This occupational pattern of minority groups remained unchanged in 2007 as reported in EEO-1 survey.

Note: Years selected from available data.

T11. Three Private Sector Industries with High Women Employment Rate
(2002-2007)

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Health Care and Social Assistance (%) Education Services (%) Finance and Insurance (%)
2003 79.1 61.8 62.6
2004 79.1 61.6 61.9
2005 79.1 61.9 61.3
2006 79.1 62.3 60.8
2007 79.2 63.5 60.4

* * * Over the past 5 years beginning in 2003, industries with consistently high female employment included Health Care and Social Assistance (79.1 percent in 2003 to 79.2 percent in 2007), Education Services (61.8 percent to 63.5 percent), and Finance and Insurance (62.9 percent to 60.4 percent) (Also see Table I to Table XV in the Appendix).

Note: Years selected from available data.

T12. Three Private Sector Industries with High Minority Employment Rate
(2002-2007)

Data Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Employer Information Reports (EEO-1 Single and Consolidated Reports). Figures prior to 2005 were as reported in "Indicators of Equal Employment Opportunity", EEOC, (2004).

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting Accommodation and Food Services Waste Management and Remediation Services
2003 54.7 43.8 43.0
2004 58.1 44.0 43.8
2005 58.1 44.4 45.0
2006 57.4 44.8 47.6
2007 67.0 46.9 50.9

*** Three industries with consistently high minority employment between 2003 and 2007 included Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (54.7 percent in 2003 to 67.0 percent in 2007), Accommodation and Food Services (43.8 percent to 46.9 percent), and Waste Management and Remediation Services (43.0 percent to 50.9 percent) (Also see Table I to Table XV in the Appendix.)

Note: Years selected from available data.


This page was last modified on March 23, 2009.