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Characteristics of Private Sector Employment

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission


 

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Using EEO-1 Data To Examine
Characteristics of Private Sector Employment
2003

Forward

As never before, America's economic prosperity is dependent on our ability to compete in the global marketplace. Maintaining a competitive edge depends on the full use of our nation's talented workers, regardless of their race, ethnicity, color, religion, sex, age or disability. In the global economy, our nation enjoys an enormous labor market advantage when discriminatory employment practices are avoided. A useful step in fully utilizing our labor resources is to understand that the labor market is changing and that some industries have been successful in expanding their labor markets to take advantage of an increasingly diverse pool of talented workers.

As part of its mandate under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission requires periodic reports from public and private employers, and unions and labor organizations which indicate the composition of their work forces by sex and by race/ethnic category. Key among these reports is the EEO-1 which is collected annually from private employers with 100 or more employees or federal contractors with 50 more employees. Individual employers file separate reports for each of their facilities with 50 or more employees. Our EEO-1 reports provide a very rich data base for various uses. The Commission invests heavily in proactive prevention programs that are designed to anticipate and remove, from the workplace, potentially discriminatory practices. Consistent with that goal, this report seeks to assist employers make full use of America's labor markets by understanding more about the characteristics of those markets. A general overview of what the EEO-1 reports suggests about private sector employment is provided for that purpose. I hope that this publication will be informative and assist you in your efforts to develop and maintain inclusive and productive workplaces.

Cari M. Dominguez, Chair
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
2003

Executive Summary

  • Women represent 48 percent of all EEO-1 employment. Women exceed this representation as professionals, sales workers, office and clerical workers and as service workers. From 1990 to 2001 the percentage of women employed as officials and managers increased by 32 percent.
  • The source of the highest per capita allegations of gender-based discrimination was Automotive Dealers and Service Stations.
  • African Americans represent 14 percent of all EEO-1 employment, the largest share of minority EEO-1 employment. African Americans exceed their total representation as office and clerical workers, operatives, laborers and service workers. African American employment as Officials and Managers increased by about one-third over the past decade.
  • The industry with the largest per capita rate of race-based charge allegations was Transportation Services.
  • Hispanic employment in the private sector nearly doubled from 1990 to 2001 reaching 11 percent in 2001. Hispanics employment as operatives, laborers and service workers exceeds 11 percent and Hispanic representation as Officials and Managers increased by about 50 percent over the past decade.
  • Asian employment while still a relatively small portion of the workforce (four percent) increased by 49 percent over that period. Asian Americans exceed four percent in their employment as professionals and technicians. Asian American representation as Officials and Managers increased by about 50 percent over the past decade.
  • Allegations on the basis of national origin would be filed by minority groups such as Hispanics and Asian Americans as well as others. Auto Repair, Services, and Parking and Apparel And Other Textile Products were the largest sources of these type of allegations.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Introduction

Total Employment

Growth and Decline

Distribution by Job Group

Employment as Officials and Managers

Movement of Women from White Collar to Management Positions

Per Capita Charge Allegations

Additional Information

 

 

 

Introduction

 

 

 

Relying primarily on the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's (EEOC's) EEO-1 report, characteristics of employment are examined from six different perspectives: total employment, the growth and decline of employment by industry, employment by job group, employment of officials and managers, the movement of women from white collar to management positions and the bases of charge allegations by industry. The report seeks to capture these measures using the most recent data from 2001 and by examining recent trends from 1990.

The annual EEO-1 report indicates the composition of an employer's workforces by sex and by race/ethnic category. The EEO-1 collects data on nine major job categories: (1) officials and managers, (2) professionals, (3) technicians, (4) sales workers, (5) office and clerical workers, (6) craft workers, (7) operatives, (8) laborers and (9) service workers. Race/ethnic designations used are White (not of Hispanic origin), Black (not of Hispanic origin), Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaskan Native. In addition to the workforce data provided by the employer, information about each establishment is added to the database. This includes the establishment's North American Industrial Classification System code and in early years, added the Standard Industrial Classification code.

Total Employment

In examining the total employment of women over the past decade (1990 to 2001), the percentage of women has remained relatively constant. However the employment of different race/ethnic groups has changed.

Total Employment by Gender Race/Ethnic Group EEO-1 Data 1990 to 2001

  • African Americans represent the largest share of minority EEO-1 employment.
  • Hispanic employment in the private sector nearly doubled over the time period.
  • The gap between African American and Hispanic employment dropped from nearly six percent in 1990 to just three percent in 2001.
  • Asian employment while still a relatively small portion of the workforce increased by 49 percent over the period.

Women and minority groups are not, of course, employed evenly among all industries. The following tables rank industries (as defined by the North American Industrial Classification System, industry subsectors) based on the percentage of women, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians and Native Americans/Alaskan Natives. Table 1 lists the ten industries where women have the highest percentage of employment. The highest percentage of women are employed in the Nursing & Residential Care Facilities industry.

Table 1
Ranking of Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of Women
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

Industry Employment Reports Filed
Women Employed Women Percent Total
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 978,609 82.52 1,185,908 7,747
Hospitals 3,129,271 79.37 3,942,645 4,284
Ambulatory Health Care Services 702,175 77.19 909,656 4,507
Apparel Manufacturing 126,918 67.89 186,951 796
Insurance Carriers & Related Activities 857,069 67.53 1,269,101 4,693
Social Assistance 187,115 66.38 281,903 1,839
General Merchandise Stores 1,740,601 66.18 2,630,079 13,109
Credit Intermediation & Related Activities 886,423 66.06 1,341,891 6,094
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores 151,646 65.80 230,481 1,989
Religious/Grantmaking/ Prof/Like Organizations 165,567 65.77 251,737 1,462

Table 2 provides the same type of listing for African Americans. While African American are also highly represented in the Nursing &Residential Care Facilities industry, the industry with the largest proportion of African American employees is Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation.

Table 2
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of African Americans
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

Industry Employment Reports Filed
African Americans African Americans Percent Total
Transit & Ground Passenger Transportation 44,480 29.03 153,211 861
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 334,930 28.24 1,185,908 7,747
Textile Mills 62,634 27.35 229,003 902
Social Assistance 75,340 26.73 281,903 1,839
Monetary Authorities - Central Bank 5,919 23.64 25,041 70
Couriers & Messengers 112,285 23.09 486,354 1,066
Administrative & Support Services 452,068 21.31 2,121,242 9,363
Warehousing & Storage 31,590 20.39 154,912 872
Religious/Grant making/Prof/Like Organizations 50,026 19.87 251,737 1,462
Rental & Leasing Services 30,321 19.85 152,752 979

Table 3 provides similar data for Hispanics. Hispanics tend to be employed more heavily in agricultural industries. The three industries with the highest percentage of Hispanic workers are all in the agricultural industry.

Table 3
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of Hispanics
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

Industry Employment Reports Filed
Hispanics Hispanic Percent Total
Crop Production 39,209 61.80 63,440 248
Agriculture & Forestry Support Activities 10,366 40.57 25,552 86
Animal Production 17,332 33.34 51,979 229
Food Mfg 308,508 27.74 1,112,240 3,673
Accommodation 218,582 24.12 906,306 3,341
Personal & Laundry Services 36,237 22.68 159,773 1,175
Food Services & Drinking Places 305,130 20.04 1,522,230 16,299
Special Trade Contractors 74,662 18.24 409,402 2,274
Waste Management & Remediation Services 19,863 18.19 109,182 859
Heavy Construction 48,780 17.12 284,889 1,328

Industries were also ranked on the basis of their employment of Asian workers. Table 4 provides those results. Asian Americans tend to have larger portions of employment in more technical industries. For example, the industry with the largest portion of Asians is the Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing with 13.5 percent.

Table 4
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of Asians
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

Industry Employment Reports Filed
Asians Asian Percent Total
Computer & Electronic Product Mfg 196,094 13.54 1,448,636 4,331
Professional, Scientific & Technical Services 180,652 8.15 2,217,351 10,487
Security, Commodity Contracts & Like Activity 34,134 7.89 432,483 1,573
Accommodation 69,060 7.62 906,306 3,341
Miscellaneous Mfg 36,031 7.45 483,589 1,917
Lessors of Other Nonfinancial Intangible Asset 151 7.23 2,089 8
Monetary Authorities - Central Bank 1,802 7.20 25,041 70
Health & Personal Care Stores 9,019 6.91 130,564 1,387
Electronics & Appliance Stores 10,830 6.82 158,856 1,386
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores 15,654 6.79 230,481 1,989

Finally, the employment of Native Americans/Alaskan Natives was examined by industry. Results are shown in Table 5. While this group represents just a small percentage of employment. The distribution of these workers is not uniform. Native Americans/Alaskan Natives are heavily represented in extraction industries.

Table 5
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of
Native Americans/Alaskan Natives
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

Industry Employment Reports Filed
Native Americans Native American Percent Total
Mining Support Activities 2,533 1.92 131,785 530
Mining (except Oil & Gas) 1,904 1.88 101,232 522
Pipeline Transportation 379 1.63 23,307 110
Forestry and Logging 78 1.48 5,273 41
Animal Production 727 1.40 51,979 229
Heavy Construction 3,767 1.32 284,889 1,328
Gasoline Stations 802 1.19 67,454 498
Rail Transportation 2,231 1.16 191,602 418
Oil & Gas Extraction 675 1.07 63,099 243
Wood Product Mfg 2,324 0.94 246,770 1,258

Growth and Decline

The EEO-1 data reflects changes in the total employment in various industries. While some industries increased their total employment in the years from 1990 to 2001, others saw a decline in employment. Table 6 lists those industries showing the largest decline in employment based on the rate of change.

Table 6
EEO-1 Data for Ten Years 1992 to 2001
Change in Total Employment
Ten Industries with Largest Declines in Employment

INDUSTRY RATE OF CHANGE (PERCENT) TOTAL EMPLOYMENT 1992 TOTAL EMPLOYMENT 2001
Apparel And Other Textile Products -157.908 461,292 178,859
Leather And Leather Products -100.594 84,707 42,228
Metal Mining -95.932 51,724 26,399
Coal Mining -66.359 78,889 47,421
Textile Mill Products -48.550 521,938 351,354
Petroleum And Coal Products -39.317 139,282 99,975
Tobacco Products -27.260 45,171 35,495
Nonmetallic Minerals, Except Fuels -26.428 41,347 32,704
Electric, Gas, And Sanitary Services -18.592 732,790 617,907
Personal Services -17.733 166,342 141,287

Apparel and other textile products saw a large decline as measured by both total employment and rates of change. Table 7 lists those industries where a large increase in employment was observed. While the Motion Picture industry showed the highest rate of change, it still employs fewer total employees than some of the other high growth industries such as Building Materials and Garden Supplies and Security and Commodity Brokers.

Table 7
EEO-1 Data for Ten Years 1992 to 2001
Change in Total Employment
Ten Industries with Largest Increases in Employment

INDUSTRY RATE OF CHANGE (PERCENT) TOTAL EMPLOYMENT 1992 TOTAL EMPLOYMENT 2001
Motion Pictures 62.9274 37,757 101,846
Building Materials & Garden Supplies 59.4433 167,039 411,865
Furniture And Homefurnishings Stores 57.8750 88,227 209,441
Amusement & Recreation Services 53.5246 219,241 471,736
Security And Commodity Brokers 50.3941 205,863 414,997
Insurance Agents, Brokers, & Service 50.2229 108,848 218,671
Museums, Botanical, Zoological Gardens 48.7395 20,395 39,787
Special Trade Contractors 46.6292 218,895 410,140
Engineering & Management Services 46.5423 713,455 1,334,615
Holding And Other Investment Offices 46.5283 76,149 142,410

The distribution of women and minority groups among the ten industries with the largest rates of change in employment (growth industries) and among the ten industries with the smallest rates of change in employment (declining industries) was examined. Women were fairly evenly distributed among these industries. In 1992, they made up 38 percent of total employment in growth industries and 43 percent in declining industries. In 2001, they made up 36 percent of employment in growth industries and 39 percent in declining industries. African Americans appear to be more likely to be employed in growth industries. See Figure 2.

Distribution of African American Employees
Comparing Growth and Declining Industries

  • African Americans are more likely to be employed in growth than declining industries.
  • These different employment rates have become closer over the past ten years.

Distribution of Hispanic Employees
Comparing Growth and Declining Industries

  • Hispanics are just slightly more likely to be employed in growth than in declining industries.
  • These differences remained constant as Hispanic employment rates increased.

Distribution of Asian Employees
Comparing Growth and Declining Industries

  • Asian Americans are more likely to be employed in declining than in growth industries.
  • These different employment rates have remained relatively constant over the last ten years..

Distribution of Native American/Alaskan Native Employees
Comparing Growth and Declining Industries

  • Native American/Alaskan Natives are slightly more likely to be employed in growth than in declining industries.
  • Native American/Alaskan Native employment rates are small and have remained relatively constant in the last decade.

Distribution by Job Group

One method for examining the employment status of women and minority groups is to examine their distribution across the EEO-1 job groups.

Distribution of Women
by Job Group

  • Women represent 48 percent of all EEO-1 employment.
  • Women exceed their total representation as professionals, sales workers, office and clerical workers and as service workers.
  • Women fall below their representation as officials and managers, craft workers, operatives and laborers.

Distribution of African Americans
by Job Group

  • African Americans represent 14 percent of all EEO-1 employment. African Americans exceed their total representation as office and clerical workers, operatives, laborers and service workers.
  • African Americans fall below their total representation as officials and managers, professionals, technicians, sales workers and craft workers.

Distribution of Hispanics
by Job Group

  • Hispanics represent 11 percent of all EEO-1 employment.
  • Hispanics exceed their total representation as operatives, laborers and service workers.
  • Hispanics all below their total representation as officials and managers, professionals, technicians, sales workers and office and clerical workers.

Distribution of Asian Americans
by Job Group

  • Asian Americans represent four percent of all EEO-1 employment
  • Asian Americans exceed their total representation as professionals and technicians.
  • Asian Americans fall below their total representation in all other job groups including officials and managers.

Distribution of Native Americans/Alaskan Natives
by Job Group

  • Native Americans represent less than one percent of all EEO-1 employment.
  • Native Americans exceed their total representation in sales workers, blue collar and service worker jobs.
  • Native Americans fall below their total representation as officials and managers and as professionals.

Employment as Officials and Managers

Another method for examining the employment status of women and minority groups is to examine their employment in higher paying job categories such as officials and managers.

The Employment
of Women as Officials and Managers
1990-2001

  • The percentage of women employed as officials and managers increased more than six percentage points during the last decade.
  • The rate of change for this increase was 32 percent.

The Employment
of Minorities as Officials and Managers
1990-2001

  • Minority group representation as Officials and Managers increased substantially over the past decade.
  • Hispanics and Asian Americans increased by about 50 percent.
  • Blacks and Native Americans increased by about one-third, 36.6 percent and 31 percent, respectively.

Just as the total employment of women and minority groups fluctuates by industry, they are not employed evenly across all industries as officials and managers. Table 8 lists the ten industries where women have the highest percentage of officials and managers. These industries are very similar to those based on the total employment of women.

Table 8
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of Women
As Officials and Managers

Industry Managers Reports Filed
Women Percent Women Total
Nursing &Residential Care Facilities 56,772 73.67 77,067 7,747
Hospitals 161,395 66.94 241,093 4,284
Ambulatory Health Care Services 44,369 62.81 70,636 4,507
Social Assistance 15,868 61.02 26,003 1,839
Clothing &Clothing Accessories Stores 19,831 59.33 33,425 1,989
Religious/Grantmaking/ Prof/Like Organizations 15,828 52.01 30,434 1,462
Museums, Historical Sites &Like Institutions 2,339 51.61 4,532 110
Educational Services 4,787 50.23 9,530 515
General Merchandise Stores 91,819 49.47 185,620 13,109
Credit Intermediation & Related Activities 130,827 49.05 266,743 6,094

Table 9 lists the ten industries where African Americans have the highest percentage of officials and managers. While the top ten industries for total African American employment and African American employment as officials and managers are very similar the order varies.

Table 9
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of African Americans
As Officials and Managers

Industry Managers Reports Filed
African Americans Percent African Americans Total
Couriers & Messengers 9,557 16.32 58,554 1,066
Social Assistance 4,217 16.22 26,003 1,839
Transit &Ground Passenger Transportation 911 15.01 6,069 861
Religious/Grant making/Prof/Like Organizations 3,798 12.48 30,434 1,462
Monetary Authorities - Central Bank 537 11.67 4,601 70
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 8,840 11.47 77,067 7,747
Broadcasting & Telecommunications 23,250 10.96 212,109 6,585
Food Services & Drinking Places 11,488 10.28 111,792 16,299
Accommodation 9,175 9.88 92,875 3,341
Warehousing & Storage 1,316 9.28 14,174 872

When examining total Hispanic employment, the importance of agriculture industries was striking. Other industries are higher ranked when examining the employment of Hispanics as officials and managers. Service industries seem quite important for Hispanic officials and managers.

Table 10
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of Hispanics
As Officials and Managers

Industry Managers Reports Filed
Hispanic Percent Hispanic Total
Crop Production 1,210 23.79 5,087 248
Accommodation 8,954 9.64 92,875 3,341
Food Services & Drinking Places 10,713 9.58 111,792 16,299
Animal Production 473 8.73 5,419 229
Water Transportation 513 8.42 6,095 107
Couriers & Messengers 4,665 7.97 58,554 1,066
Personal &Laundry Services 1,253 7.88 15,901 1,175
Administrative & Support Services 13,549 7.23 187,444 9,363
Motion Picture & Sound Recording Industries 1,161 7.19 16,144 769
Agriculture & Forestry Support Activities 192 7.13 2,692 86

There are some interesting differences between rankings based on total employment of Asian Americans and the employment of Asian Americans as officials and managers. See Table 11. The Motion Picture &Sound Recording Industry is ranked third for employing Asian Americans officials and managers, yet the industry does not appear on the top ten industries of Asian American total employment. The same is true for Chemical Manufacturing, Wholesale Trade and Durable Goods and Publishing Industries.

Table 11
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of Asian Americans
As Officials and Managers

Industry Managers Reports Filed
Hispanic Percent Hispanic Total
Computer & Electronic Product Mfg 17,418 8.22 211,962 4,331
Professional, Scientific &Technical Services 20,528 5.91 347,054 10,487
Motion Picture & Sound Recording Industries 925 5.73 16,144 769
Security, Commodity Contracts &Like Activity 4,129 5.41 76,356 1,573
Accommodation 4,702 5.06 92,875 3,341
Chemical Mfg 7,633 4.88 156,344 2,893
Health &Personal Care Stores 688 4.57 15,043 1,387
Wholesale Trade, Durable Goods 5,271 4.54 116,069 4,800
Publishing Industries 4,832 4.53 106,567 2,295
Electronics & Appliance Stores 745 4.38 17,010 1,386

While the order varies, the top ten industries for Native American/Alaskan Native total employment and employment as officials and managers is quite consistent.

Table 12
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of Native American/Alaskan Native
As Officials and Managers

Industry Managers Reports Filed
Hispanic Percent Hispanic Total
Mining (except Oil & Gas) 127 1.02 12,502 522
Animal Production 52 0.96 5,419 229
Mining Support Activities 136 0.96 14,188 530
Oil &Gas Extraction 85 0.84 10,161 243
Pipeline Transportation 31 0.78 3,951 110
Gasoline Stations 62 0.72 8,616 498
Heavy Construction 181 0.69 26,164 1,328
Couriers & Messengers 383 0.65 58,554 1,066
Wood Product Mfg 117 0.65 18,125 1,258
Air Transportation 215 0.64 33,697 733

Movement of Women from White Collar to Management Positions

Associated with the issue of glass ceilings, is the exclusion of women from management positions. When women experience relatively high employment status, it might be expected that they can move as easily into management positions as their male counterparts. This can be examined to some extent using EEO-1 data. For this analysis, the employment of men and women was divided between managers and white collar employees. White collar employees were defined as those in the EEO-1 job groups of professionals, technicians and sales workers. These white collar employees were treated as if they represented the pool of workers from which officials and managers were selected.

Steps were taken to eliminate those industries where this assumption was unlikely to be accurate. Further, it is not expected that job groups within the pool of white collar workers contributed evenly to management positions or that these relationships would be the same in all industries. Therefore, the job groups need to weighted based on their contribution. An odds ratio was computed for each firm within an industry. The odds for men would be the number of men reported as officials and managers divided by the sum of men reported as professionals, technicians and sales workers using weighted values. The same calculation would be made for women, and the odds ratio would be the division of these two odds. Once an odds ratio was computed for individual firms, a median was then constructed for relevant industries. To improve the accuracy of these calculations, the more detailed North American Industrial Classification System codes for industry groups (four digit codes) were utilized. The distribution of the median odds ratios were examined.

Table 13
Those Industries Where Women Have the Highest Odds
Of Moving From Employment as Professionals, Technicians
and Salesworkers to Management
Selected From the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF WOMEN MANAGERS PERCENT OF WOMEN IN WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
Legal Services 506 51.72 40.29 2.972 42
Scheduled Air Transportation 50 35.88 39.84 1.380 13
Offices of Physicians 392 66.99 74.39 1.237 44
Investigation & Security Services 48 24.62 18.59 1.138 20
Employment Services 153 41.92 42.02 1.053 41
Nav/Measuring/ Medical/Control Instruments Mfg 350 19.55 22.55 1.003 28
Computer Systems Design &Related Services 639 31.97 31.71 1.002 15
Telecommunications 277 40.52 38.33 1.000 4
Computer & Peripheral Equipment Mfg 153 25.26 27.19 0.999 29
Data Processing Services 170 38.36 39.10 0.961 34

Only the top 50 industries with respect to total employment reported on the year 2001EEO-1 were examined. Results are provided in Table 13 and Table 14. Table 13 displays those industries where women have a high probability of being managers (high median odds ratios). Table 14 displays those industries with low probabilities.

Table 14
Those Industries Where Women Have the Lowest Odds
Of Moving From Employment as Professionals, Technicians
and Salesworkers to Management
Selected From the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF WOMEN MANAGERS PERCENT OF WOMEN IN WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
Grocery Stores 293 36.18 56.00 0.459 2
Animal Slaughtering &Processing 56 14.71 27.93 0.479 23
General Freight Trucking 61 22.84 57.23 0.488 32
General Medical & Surgical Hospitals 1652 66.98 81.26 0.495 1
Community Care Facilities for the Elderly 449 66.71 87.71 0.508 45
Full-Service Restaurants 47 38.27 59.78 0.510 6
Nursing Care Facilities 1021 73.30 89.15 0.512 10
Pulp, Paper & Paperboard Mills 65 17.39 34.97 0.519 49
Printing &Related Support Activities 304 26.03 41.16 0.524 35
Building Material & Supplies Dealers 139 20.21 37.76 0.561 19

Per Capita Charge Allegations

Examining industries with respect to complaints of discrimination filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (charge filings) in juxtaposition to employment provides an interesting perspective on differences within industries. Charge receipts from fiscal year 2002 were analyzed examining the allegations contained in those charges. Charges can contain multiple basis such as race and gender and it is convenient to think of these as different allegations. The bases of these allegations were computed by industry for race, gender, national origin, age and disability. These categories refer to the basis of the allegation and not necessarily about the individuals filing the charge. Data regarding the industry of the charge respondent is available based on a two-digit SIC code. EEO-1 data from 2001 was used to aggregate the total number of employees for each of these industries and a per capita charge rate was computed by dividing allegations per 1,000 EEO-1 reported employees. This ratio is important to control for the size of industries as measured by employees. Separate calculations were computed for each of the bases cited above. It is interesting, that even when controlling for size of industries, a number of the same industries are ranked high in different allegation bases.

Table 15
Per Capita Charge Rates
Race-Based Allegations

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOY MENT ALLEGATIONS BASED ON RACE CHARGES PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES
Transportation Services 875 140,198 271 1.93
Personal Services 929 141,287 259 1.83
Automotive Dealers &Service Stations 2,297 308,174 546 1.77
Auto Repair, Services, And Parking 1,068 152,967 228 1.49
Membership Organizations 1,061 199,005 288 1.45

Table 15 displays results of ranking per capita allegations of race discrimination. The industry with the largest per capita rate of race-based charge allegations was Transportation Services. This includes "establishments furnishing services incidental to transportation, such as forwarding and packing services, and the arrangement of passenger and freight transportation"

While a number of the same industries are highly ranked on the number of both race and gender-based allegations, the source of the highest per capita allegations of gender-based discrimination was Automotive Dealers and Service Stations. See Table 16.

Table 16
Per Capita Charge Rates
Gender-Based Allegations

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOY MENT ALLEGATIONS BASED ON SEX CHARGES PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES
Automotive Dealers & Service Stations 2,297 308,174 562 1.82
Personal Services 929 141,287 241 1.71
Transportation Services 875 140,198 167 1.19
General Building Contractors 1,024 211,688 227 1.07
Agricultural Production-- Crops 237 61,408 63 1.03

Allegations on the basis of national origin would be filed by large minority groups such as Hispanics and Asian Americans as well as others. The top two industries here, "Auto Repair, Services, and Parking" and "Apparel And Other Textile Products" were not in the top five industries ranked on race- or gender-based allegations. See Table 17.

Table 17
Per Capita Charge Rates
National Origin-Based Allegations

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOY MENT ALLEGATIONS BASED ON NATIONAL ORIGIN CHARGES PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES
Auto Repair, Services, And Parking 1,068 152,967 92 0.60
Apparel And Other Textile Products 853 178,859 92 0.51
Personal Services 929 141,287 66 0.47
Transportation Services 875 140,198 62 0.44
General Building Contractors 1,024 211,688 89 0.42

The set of industries ranked high on age-based allegations are substantially different than those identified above. The statistics for the highest ranking industry, motion pictures, might be somewhat mis-leading due to an organized effort to file multiple charges against employers in this industry. Table 18 shows the data for the top five industries.

Table 18
Per Capita Charge Rates
Age-Based Allegations

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOY MENT ALLEGATIONS BASED ON AGE CHARGES PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES
Motion Pictures 739 101,846 1,295 12.7
Communication 6,586 1,370,000 2,034 1.49
Personal Services 929 141,287 134 0.95
Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 1,131 237,013 214 0.90
Automotive Dealers & Service Stations 2,297 308,174 241 0.78

The final category of charges examined were those based on disability. While "Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries" was highly ranked on age-based charges,

Table 19 Per Capita Charge Rates Disability-Based Allegations

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOY MENT ALLEGATIONS BASED ON DISABILITY CHARGES PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES
Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 1,131 237,013 231 0.97
Transportation Services 875 140,198 134 0.96
Personal Services 929 141,287 111 0.79
Automotive Dealers &Service Stations 2,297 308,174 223 0.72
Local And Interurban Passenger Transit 912 162,844 109 0.67

it is the top source of disability-based allegations using a per capita measure. This industry includes, firms manufacturing a variety of smaller consumer goods such as jewelry, musical instruments, toys and athletic goods.

It is interesting to note those industries ranked in the top five in more than one of the bases groups. Four industries are noteworthy. Personal Services appears in the top five in all five lists. Personal Services is defined as "establishments primarily engaged in providing services generally to individuals, such as laundries, dry cleaning plants, portrait photographic studios, and beauty and barber shops." Two industries appear in four of the five set of rankings. These are Transportation Services and Automotive Dealers and Service Stations. Auto Repair, Services and Parking appears in three of the five rankings.

Additional Information

For additional information visit our web site at http://www.eeoc.gov. In particular STATISTICS and JOB PATTERNS FOR MINORITIES AND WOMEN for sample copies of the EEO-1 form, an instruction booklet and aggregate statistics. See EEOC ENFORCEMENT STATISTICS AND LITIGATION for data regarding charges.


      Prepared By:                Office of Research, Information and Planning             U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission             Washington, D.C.  

This page was last modified on January 29, 2004.