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WOMEN OF COLOR: THEIR EMPLOYMENT IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission





Table Of Contents




EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • The employment of women of color increased dramatically in the period between 1990 and 2001. The rate of change for African American women is the lowest increase at 43 percent and the rate of change for Hispanic women is the highest at 104 percent.
  • Although women of color still remain a relatively small percentage of all officials and managers, their increase in the decade between 1990 and 2001 is dramatic. Their rates of changes range from 75 percent for African American women to 135 percent for Asian women.
  • Based on a comparison with their employment as professionals, technicians and sales workers, women of color have high probabilities of becoming managers in (1) Legal Services and (2) Offices of Physicians. This is true for each of the minority groups when analyzed separately. This finding may be problematic, as officials and managers in these industries are likely to have lower employment status than others. In contrast, each of the minority groups appears to have low probabilities of becoming managers in Department Stores.
  • Per capita charge rates were computed by dividing the number of charges filed by women of color against firms in an industry by their employment in that industry. Race/ethnicity and industry both have an effect on per capita charge rates. While there are minor differences in charge rates between race/ethnic groups of women, there is consistency in the industrial rankings of charge rates across these race/ethnic groups.

AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

  • African American women represent the largest share of minority women's EEO-1 employment over the decade with 7.6 percent of employment in 2001. The rate of change from 1990 to 2001 in the number of African American women employed is 43 percent.
  • Nursing and Residential Care Facilities has the largest percentage of African American women employed (23.4 percent) and also has the largest percentage of women overall (82.5 percent).
  • African American women represent 7.6 percent of all EEO-1 employment. African American women exceed this representation in sales, clerical and service jobs.
  • The number of African American women reported as officials and managers on EEO-1 reports increased from 111,318 to 195,784 which is a rate of change greater than 75 percent.
  • The industries most likely to employ African American women as officials and managers are (1) Social Assistance, (2) Nursing and Residential Care Facilities and (3) Religious/Grantmaking, Civic, Professional and Similar Organizations.
  • Based on a comparison with their employment as professionals, technicians and sales workers, African American women have the highest probabilities of becoming managers, in Legal Services and the lowest probability in Department Stores.
  • Automotive Dealers and Service Stations, Miscellaneous Manufacturing and General Building Contractors have high per capita charge rates for African American women.

HISPANIC WOMEN

  • The employment of Hispanic women in the private sector increased from 2.9 percent in 1990 to 4.7 percent in 2001. The rate of change in the number of Hispanic women employed is 104 percent.
  • Crop production employs the largest percentage of Hispanic women (18.5 percent) and the largest percentage of total Hispanics (61.8 percent). However, the variation in these proportions shows the extent to which the industry is much more male-dominated.
  • Hispanic women represent 4.7 percent of all EEO-1 employment. Hispanic women exceed this total representation as sales workers, clericals, laborers and service workers.
  • The number of female Hispanic officials and managers reported on EEO-1 reports more than doubled with a rate of change for Hispanic women of 130 percent.
  • Hispanic women are most likely to be employed as managers in (1) Water Transportation, (2) Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation and (3) Accommodations.
  • Based on a comparison with their employment as professionals, technicians and sales workers, Hispanic women have the highest probabilities of becoming managers, in (1) Legal Services, (2) Offices of Physicians and (3) Architectural, Engineering and Related Services.
  • Based on a comparison with their employment as professionals, technicians and sales workers, Hispanic women have the highest probabilities of becoming managers, in Legal Services and the lowest probability in Department Stores.
  • Construction-based industries such as Special Trade Contractors and General Building Contractors have high per capita charge rates for Hispanic women.

ASIAN WOMEN

  • Asian women increased in employment from 1.3 percent in 1990 to 2.1 percent in 2001, a change of 51.5 percent. The rate of change in the number of Asian women employed is 96 percent.
  • The top ranked industry for the employment of Asian women is Computer & Electronic Product Manufacturing which is also the highest rated industry for Asians overall. However, the retail industries, Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores and Health & Personal Care Stores, are higher ranked for Asian women than for all Asians.
  • Asian women represent 2.1 percent of all EEO-1 employment. Asian women exceed their total representation as professionals, technicians, and clericals.
  • The number of female Asian officials and managers reported on EEO-1 reports more than doubled from 1990 to 2001 with a rate of change for Asian women of 135 percent.
  • The top three industries for the employment of Asian women as managers are (1) Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries, (2) Nursing & Residential Care Facilities and (3) Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores.
  • Based on a comparison with their employment as professionals, technicians and sales workers, Asian women have the highest probabilities of becoming managers, in Full Service Restaurants and the lowest probability in Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing.
  • Asian women are most likely to file charges against firms in the Manufacturing of Apparel and Other Textile Products. Auto Repair Services and Parking is ranked second for Asian women. Similar to African American women and Hispanic women, Automotive Dealers and Service Stations is among those industries with the highest per capita charge rates for Asian women.

NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN

  • From 1990 to 2001, the employment of Native American women grew just slightly from 0.2 percent to 0.3 percent. The rate of change in the number of American Indian women employed is 81.0 percent.
  • Native American women are most frequently employed in the industries of Gasoline Stations and Apparel Manufacturing.
  • Native American women make up 0.3 percent of all EEO-1 employment. Native American women exceed their total representation as sales workers, clericals and service workers.
  • The number of American Indian officials and managers nearly doubled with a rate of change of 87 percent.
  • The top three industries for the employment of Native American women as managers are (1) Gasoline Stations, (2) Social Assistance and (3) General Merchandise Stores.
  • Based on a comparison with their employment as professionals, technicians and sales workers, Native American women have the highest probabilities of becoming managers, in Legal Services and the lowest probability in Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills.
  • Social Services, Miscellaneous Retail, and Hotels and other Lodging industries have high per capita charge rates for Native American women.

Introduction

This examination of the employment status of minority women or women of color relies primarily on the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's (EEOC's) EEO-1 report. Characteristics of employment are examined from five different perspectives: total employment, employment by job group, employment of officials and managers, the movement of women from white collar to management positions and per capita charge rates by industry. The report seeks to capture these measures using the most recent EEO-1 data from 2001 and by examining recent trends from 1990. It also utilizes charge receipt data.

The annual EEO-1 report indicates the composition of an employer's workforces by sex and by race/ethnic category. The EEO-1 collects data on nine major job categories: (1) officials and managers, (2) professionals, (3) technicians, (4) sales workers, (5) office and clerical workers, (6) craft workers, (7) operatives, (8) laborers and (9) service workers.(1) Race/ethnic designations used are White (not of Hispanic origin), Black (not of Hispanic origin), Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander (Asian), American Indian or Alaskan Native (Native American). In addition to the workforce data provided by the employer, information about each establishment is added to the database. This includes the establishment's North American Industrial Classification System code and, in early years, added the Standard Industrial Classification code.

The examination of per capita charge rates combines information from the EEO-1 with charge data from EEOC's Integrated Mission System (IMS). IMS is an integrated data base application which supports charge processing, litigation and outreach activities. Data used are from fiscal year 2002 (October 2001 to September 2002) and include charges received by either the EEOC or Fair Employment Practice Agencies (FEPAs)(2). To be included in the analyses of per capita charge rates, it was necessary that the charge record contain information regarding gender, race and/or ethnicity for the charging party and information regarding the employer's industry.


TOTAL EMPLOYMENT

Throughout the past decade (1990 to 2001), the total employment of women of color has remained for each group a relatively small proportion. However, there has been some growth and, taken as a group, they grew from 11 percent in 1990 to 14.5 percent in 2001 for a 33 percent increase.

Total Employment of Women by Race/Ethnic Group
EEO-1 Data 1990 to 2001

Image
  • African American women represent the largest share of minority women's EEO-1 employment over the decade with 7.6 percent of employment in 2001. The rate of change, from 1990 to 2001, in the number of African American women employed is 43 percent, showing substantial growth, but this is far below the rates for Hispanic and Asian women.
  • The employment of Hispanic women in the private sector increased from 2.9 percent in 1990 to 4.7 percent in 2001. The rate of change in the number of Hispanic women employed is 104 percent.
  • Asian women increased in employment from 1.3 percent to 2.1 percent, a change of 51.5 percent. The rate of change in the number of Asian women employed is 96 percent.
  • The employment of Native American women grew just slightly from 0.2 percent to 0.3 percent. The rate of change in the number of American Indian women employed is 81.0 percent.

Table 1 provides some of the details of these changes.

Table 1
Changes in the Employment of Minority Women

WOMEN EMPLOYMENT RATE OF
CHANGE
PERCENTAGES RATE OF
CHANGE
1990 2001 1990 2001
AFRICAN AMERICAN 2,780,544 3,983,140 0.433 6.6% 7.6% 0.147
HISPANICS 1,201,609 2,452,120 1.041 2.9% 4.7% 0.633
ASIANS 554,567 1,089,225 0.964 1.3% 2.1% 0.572
NATIVE AMERICAN 84,978 153,645 0.808 0.2% 0.3% 0.447

Women of color are not employed evenly among all industries. The following tables rank industries (as defined by the North American Industrial Classification System, industry sub sectors) based on the percentage of women who are African Americans, Hispanics, Asians and Native Americans.(3)

Table 2 lists the 10 industries where African American women have the highest percentage of employment. Nursing and Residential Care Facilities has the largest percentage of African American women employed (23.4 percent) and also has the largest percentage of women overall (82.5 percent).

Table 2
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of African American Women
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT REPORTS FILED
AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN PERCENT TOTAL
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 277,413 23.39 1,185,908 7,747
Social Assistance 49,663 17.62 281,903 1,839
Monetary Authorities - Central Bank 3,842 15.34 25,041 70
Religious/Grantmaking/Prof/Like Organizations 34,465 13.69 251,737 1,462
Ambulatory Health Care Services 121,779 13.39 909,656 4,507
Transit & Ground Passenger Transportation 19,432 12.68 153,211 861
Textile Mills 28,954 12.64 229,003 902
Apparel Manufacturing 22,906 12.25 186,951 796
Credit Intermediation & Related Activities 156,906 11.69 1,341,891 6,094
Broadcasting & Telecommunications 155,564 11.36 1,368,854 6,585


Table 3 provides similar data for Hispanic women. Those industries with the largest percent of Hispanic women are very similar to that for all Hispanics. Crop production employs the largest percentage of Hispanic women (18.5 percent) and the largest percentage of total Hispanics (61.8 percent). However, the variation in these proportions shows the extent to which the industry is much more male dominated. Like the results for total Hispanics, Agriculture and Forestry Support Services employs the second highest percentage of Hispanics but Personal & Laundry Services while ranked third for Hispanic women, is ranked a bit lower (sixth) for all Hispanics.

Table 3
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of Hispanic Women
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT REPORTS FILED
HISPANIC WOMEN HISPANIC WOMEN PERCENT TOTAL
Crop Production 11,725 18.48 63,440 248
Agriculture & Forestry Support Activities 4,178 16.35 25,552 86
Personal & Laundry Services 21,485 13.45 159,773 1,175
Accommodation 105,123 11.60 906,306 3,341
Apparel Manufacturing 20,110 10.76 186,951 796
Animal Production 5,170 9.95 51,979 229
Food Mfg 108,175 9.73 1,112,240 3,673
Scenic & Sightseeing Transportation 735 9.49 7,749 34
Leather & Allied Product Mfg 3,463 7.89 43,909 176
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores 17,864 7.75 230,481 1,989


Industries are also ranked on the basis of their employment of Asian women. Table 4 provides those results. The top ranked industry for Asian women is Computer & Electronic Product Manufacturing which is also the highest rated industry for Asians overall. The ranking for employment by industry for Asian women and all Asians tends to be very similar. However, the retail industries, Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores and Health & Personal Care Stores are higher ranked for Asian women than for all Asians. Further, Electronic and Appliance Stores, while ranked in the top ten for all Asians is not ranked in the top ten for Asian women.

Table 4
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of Asian Women
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT REPORTS FILED
ASIAN WOMEN ASIAN WOMEN PERCENT TOTAL
Computer & Electronic Product Mfg 71,241 4.92 1,448,636 4,331
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores 10,048 4.36 230,481 1,989
Health & Personal Care Stores 5,316 4.07 130,564 1,387
Accommodation 35,004 3.86 906,306 3,341
Miscellaneous Mfg 18,221 3.77 483,589 1,917
Hospitals 145,695 3.70 3,942,645 4,284
Monetary Authorities - Central Bank 922 3.68 25,041 70
Security, Commodity Contracts & Like Activity 15,179 3.51 432,483 1,573
Credit Intermediation & Related Activities 46,681 3.48 1,341,891 6,094
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 38,001 3.20 1,185,908 7,747


Finally, the employment of Native American women is examined by industry. Results are shown in Table 5. While this group represents just a small percentage of employment, the distribution of these workers is not uniform. While total Native Americans/Alaskan Native employment is heavily represented in extraction industries, Native American women are more frequently found in other industries, such as gasoline stations and apparel manufacturing.

Table 5
Top Ten Industries
Based on the Employment of American Indians/Alaskan Natives
Source: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT REPORTS FILED
NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN PERCENT TOTAL
Gasoline Stations 432 0.64 67,454 498
Apparel Manufacturing 1,049 0.56 186,951 796
Pipeline Transportation 124 0.53 23,307 110
General Merchandise Stores 13,467 0.51 2,630,079 13,109
Ambulatory Health Care Services 4,405 0.48 909,656 4,507
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 5,099 0.43 1,185,908 7,747
Social Assistance 1,119 0.40 281,903 1,839
Food & Beverage Stores 7,584 0.39 1,945,304 15,509
Hospitals 15,131 0.38 3,942,645 4,284
Food Services & Drinking Places 5,709 0.38 1,522,230 16,299

DISTRIBUTION BY JOB GROUP

Traditionally, the employment of women in EEO-1 job groups is heavily skewed toward high representation in office and clerical jobs and low representation in craft jobs. Nevertheless, the examination of minority women across all job groups provides a useful insight into their employment status.

DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN
BY JOB GROUP

Image
  • African American women represent 7.6 percent of all EEO-1 employment.
  • African American women exceed this representation as sales workers, clericals and service workers.
  • African American women fall below their overall representation as officials and managers, professionals, technicians, craft workers, operatives and laborers.

DISTRIBUTION OF HISPANIC WOMEN
BY JOB GROUP

Image
  • Hispanic women represent 4.7 percent of all EEO-1 employment.
  • Hispanic women exceed their total representation as sales workers, clericals, laborers and service workers.
  • Hispanic women fall below their total representation as officials and managers, professionals, technicians, craft workers and as operatives.

DISTRIBUTION OF ASIAN WOMEN
BY JOB GROUP

Image
  • Asian women represent 2.1 percent of all EEO-1 employment.
  • Asian women exceed their total representation as professionals, technicians, and clericals.
  • Asian women fall below their total representation as officials and managers, sales workers, craft workers, operatives and laborers.

DISTRIBUTION OF NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN
BY JOB GROUP

Image
  • Native American women make up 0.3 percent of all EEO-1 employment.
  • Native American women exceed their total representation as sales workers, clericals and service workers.
  • Native American women fall below their representation as officials and managers, professionals, craft workers and operatives.

EMPLOYMENT AS OFFICIALS AND MANAGERS

Another method for examining the employment status of minority women is to examine their employment in higher paying job categories, such as officials and managers.

The Employment of Minority Women
as Officials and Managers
1990-2001

Image
  • Although women of color still remain a relatively small percentage of all officials and managers, their increase in the decade between 1990 and 2001 is dramatic when raw numbers are examined.
  • The number of African American women reported as officials and managers on EEO-1 reports increased from 111,318 to 195,784 which is a rate of change greater than 75 percent.
  • The number of Hispanic women and Asian women officials and managers reported on EEO-1 reports more than doubled with a rate of change for Hispanic women of 130 percent and 135 percent for Asians.
  • The number of Native American women officials and managers nearly doubled with a rate of change of 87 percent.

Table 6 provides some of the details of these changes.

Table 6
Changes in the Employment of
Minority Women as Officials and Managers

WOMEN EMPLOYMENT RATE OF
CHANGE
PERCENTAGES RATE OF
CHANGE
1990 2001 1990 2001
AFRICAN AMERICAN 111,318 195,784 0.759 2.2% 3.3% 0.471
HISPANICS 49,137 112,805 1.296 1.0% 1.9% 0.920
ASIANS 29,369 69,009 1.350 0.6% 1.2% 0.965
NATIVE AMERICAN 4,965 9,279 0.869 0.1% 0.2% 0.563

Just as the total employment of women and minority groups fluctuates by industry, they are not employed evenly across all industries as officials and managers. Table 7 lists the 10 industries where African American women have the highest percentage of officials and managers.

The industries with the largest proportion of African American women officials and managers are very similar to those industries with the largest proportion of African American women employees. The order of these industries varies. For example, Broadcasting and Telecommunications is the10th ranked industry with respect to the employment of African American women overall, but it increases to the fifth-ranked with respect to African American women managers. The industries most likely to employ African American women as officials and managers are (1) Social Assistance, (2) Nursing and Residential Care Facilities and (3) Religious/ Grantmaking, Civic, Professional and Similar Organizations.

Table 7
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of African American Women
as Officials and Managers

INDUSTRY MANAGERS REPORTS FILED
WOMEN PERCENT WOMEN TOTAL
Social Assistance 2,678 10.30 26,003 1,839
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 6,836 8.870 77,067 7,747
Religious/Grantmaking/Prof/Like Organizations 2,411 7.922 30,434 1,462
Monetary Authorities - Central Bank 296 6.433 4,601 70
Broadcasting & Telecommunications 13,186 6.217 212,109 6,585
Transit & Ground Passenger Transportation 321 5.289 6,069 861
Ambulatory Health Care Services 3,613 5.115 70,636 4,507
Couriers & Messengers 2,964 5.062 58,554 1,066
Accommodation 4,616 4.970 92,875 3,341
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores 1,640 4.907 33,425 1,989

The industries most likely to employ Hispanic women as officials and managers are somewhat different than those most likely to hire Hispanic women overall. The top three industries for the total employment of Hispanic women are (1) Crop Production, (2) Agriculture and Forestry Support Activities and (3) Personal and Laundry Support Services. In contrast, Hispanic women are most likely to be employed as managers in (1) Water Transportation, (2) Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation and (3) Accommodations. See Table 8.

Table 8
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of Hispanic Women
As Officials and Managers

INDUSTRY MANAGERS REPORTS FILED
HISPANIC WOMEN HISPANIC WOMEN PERCENT TOTAL
Water Transportation 252 4.14 6,095 107
Scenic & Sightseeing Transportation 34 4.07 835 34
Accommodation 3,772 4.06 92,875 3,341
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores 1,224 3.66 33,425 1,989
Social Assistance 870 3.35 26,003 1,839
Apparel Manufacturing 552 3.25 17,010 796
Crop Production 159 3.13 5,087 248
General Merchandise Stores 5,742 3.09 185,620 13,109
Motion Picture & Sound Recording Industries 473 2.93 16,144 769
Credit Intermediation & Related Activities 7,412 2.78 266,743 6,094

While Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries is the top employer of Asian women managers, it is not in the top ten industries employing Asian women. Similarly, Nursing and Residential Care Facilities is the second highest employer of Asian managers but just 10th with respect to total employment. See Table 9.

Table 9
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of Asian Women
as Officials and Managers

INDUSTRY MANAGERS REPORTS FILED
ASIAN WOMEN ASIAN WOMEN PERCENT TOTAL
Motion Picture & Sound Recording Industries 464 2.87 16,144 769
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 1,902 2.47 77,067 7,747
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores 794 2.38 33,425 1,989
Accommodation 2,094 2.26 92,875 3,341
Security, Commodity Contracts & Like Activity 1,581 2.07 76,356 1,573
Credit Intermediation & Related Activities 5,302 1.99 266,743 6,094
Hospitals 4,368 1.81 241,093 4,284
Monetary Authorities -Central Bank 82 1.78 4,601 70
Computer & Electronic Product Mfg 3,742 1.77 211,962 4,331
Museums, Historical Sites & Like Institutions 76 1.68 4,532 110


Gasoline Stations are the top employer of Native American women overall and as officials and managers. Besides that similarity, those industries employing the largest proportion of Native American women as officials and managers are quite different from those employing Native American women in all positions. The second and third ranked industries with respect to the employment of Native American women as officials and managers, Social Assistance and General Merchandise Stores, are not even in the top ten industries employing Native American women. See Table 10 for more detailed information.

Table 10
Top Ten Industries Based on the
Employment of American Indian/Alaskan Native Women
as Officials and Managers

INDUSTRY MANAGERS REPORTS FILED
NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN PERCENT TOTAL
Gasoline Stations 28 0.325 8,616 498
Social Assistance 68 0.262 26,003 1,839
General Merchandise Stores 477 0.257 185,620 13,109
Nursing & Residential Care Facilities 192 0.249 77,067 7,747
Ambulatory Health Care Services 172 0.244 70,636 4,507
Educational Services 23 0.241 9,530 515
Transit & Ground Passenger Transportation 14 0.231 6,069 861
Food & Beverage Stores 421 0.226 186,126 15,509
Hospitals 525 0.218 241,093 4,284
Air Transportation 70 0.208 33,697 733


Conclusion

While the ranking of industries most likely to employ women of color as managers varies by race/ethnic group there is some consistency. Industries ranked high on this criteria for more than one group include, Social Assistance, Accommodations, Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores, Nursing and Residential Care Facilities, and Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries.


MOVEMENT OF WOMEN FROM WHITE COLLAR TO MANAGEMENT POSITIONS

Associated with the issue of glass ceilings is the exclusion of women from management positions. The issue might be even more severe for women of color. When minority women experience relatively high employment status, it might be expected that they can move as easily into management positions as their counterparts. This movement can be examined to some extent using EEO-1 data. For this analysis, the employment of women of color and all others is divided between managers and white collar employees. White collar employees are defined as those in the EEO-1 job groups of professionals, technicians and sales workers. These white collar employees are treated as if they represent the pool of workers from which officials and managers are selected.

Steps are taken to eliminate those industries where this assumption is unlikely to be accurate.(4) Further, it is not expected that job groups within the pool of white collar workers contribute evenly to management positions or that these relationships are the same in all industries. Therefore, the job groups are weighted based on their contribution.(5) An odds ratio is computed for each firm within an industry. The odds for a particular group, such as African American women, is the number of African American women reported as officials and managers divided by the sum of African American women reported as professionals, technicians and sales workers, using weighted values. The same calculation is made for all others, and the odds ratio is the division of these two odds. Once an odds ratio is computed for individual firms, a median is then constructed for relevant industries. To improve the accuracy of these calculations, the more detailed North American Industrial Classification System codes for industry groups (four digit codes) are utilized. Results reported in the following section are limited to the 50 industries with the largest EEO-1 employment in order to provide a more meaningful list.

Table 11 shows the top ten major industries where African American women have the highest probabilities of being managers (high median odds ratios). It is interesting to note that officials and managers in the most favorable industries, Legal Services, Offices of Physicians and Architectural, Engineering & Related Services may have limited management responsibilities. Partners or associates in these firms may be the true managers. In these industries a number of "office managers" may come from office and clerical workers in addition to professionals, technicians or sales workers.

Table 11
Those Industries Where African American Women Have the Highest Odds of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Legal Services 506 6.06 3.16 2.483 42
Offices of Physicians 392 5.93 6.53 1.691 44
Architectural, Engineering & Related Services 705 1.36 1.86 1.535 18
Scheduled Air Transportation 50 4.68 6.38 1.410 13
Employment Services 153 3.17 4.62 1.240 41
Building Material & Supplies Dealers 139 1.48 4.94 1.232 19
Investigation & Security Services 48 3.69 3.58 1.230 20
Computer Systems Design & Related Services 639 2.94 2.92 1.163 15
Computer & Peripheral Equipment Mfg 153 1.60 2.25 1.126 29
Nav/Measuring/Medical/ Control Instruments Mfg 350 1.21 1.34 1.124 28


Table 12 shows the top ten major industries where African American women have the lowest probabilities of being managers (low median odds ratios). Department Stores are ranked as having the lowest probability but their ratio may be somewhat skewed by those African American women that work part-time and may not be interested in management positions due to their full-time employment in another area. On the other hand, the segregation of these workers into sales worker jobs with limited opportunities for advancement may be the more pervasive explanation for these results.

Table 12
Those Industries Where African American Women Have the Lowest Odds of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Department Stores 50 5.70 12.68 0.478 3
Insurance Carriers 519 4.50 7.31 0.677 5
Pharmaceutical & Medicine Mfg 191 2.11 3.62 0.680 25
Nursing Care Facilities 1,021 7.96 15.51 0.706 10
Pulp, Paper & Paperboard Mills 65 1.19 3.63 0.739 49
Depository Credit Intermediation 325 5.24 6.53 0.741 8
Other Ambulatory Health Care Services 328 6.02 9.57 0.753 48
Community Care Facilities for the Elderly 449 8.25 16.26 0.760 45
Agencies & Other Insurance Related Activities 201 3.72 5.99 0.767 50
Elec Pwr Generation, Transmsn & Distribution 212 1.70 2.54 0.796 24


Table 13 shows those industries where Hispanic women have the highest probability of becoming managers. The top three industries are the same as the top three industries for African American women. As mentioned previously, the predominance of these industries might reflect negatively on the employment status of Hispanic women as managers in these industries are likely to have lower employment status than others.

Table 13
Those Industries Where Hispanic Women Have the Highest Odds of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF HISPANIC WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Legal Services 506 3.56 1.44 3.100 42
Offices of Physicians 392 4.21 4.46 2.124 44
Architectural, Engineering & Related Services 705 1.05 1.21 1.765 18
Employment Services 153 2.82 2.33 1.708 41
Nursing Care Facilities 1,021 3.36 2.70 1.653 10
Community Care Facilities for the Elderly 449 3.55 2.61 1.519 45
Computer Systems Design & Related Services 639 1.61 1.25 1.505 15
Data Processing Services 170 1.61 1.46 1.500 34
General Medical & Surgical Hospitals 1,652 2.44 2.80 1.432 1
Investigation & Security Services 48 1.70 1.28 1.336 20


Table 14 shows the top ten major industries where Hispanic women have the lowest probabilities of being managers (low median odds ratios). Like African American women, Department Stores are ranked as having the lowest probability for Hispanic women to move into management positions. Other low ranked industries include Depository Credit Intermediation (commercial banks and savings and loan associations) and Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing. The latter is the third lowest ranked industry for both African American and Hispanic women.

Table 14
Those Industries Where Hispanic Women Have the Lowest Odds of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF HISPANIC WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Department Stores 50 3.60 8.16 0.571 3
Depository Credit Intermediation 325 2.42 3.14 0.707 8
Pharmaceutical & Medicine Mfg 191 1.25 2.07 0.792 25
Aerospace Product & Parts Mfg 158 0.74 1.41 0.809 21
Elec Pwr Generation, Transmsn & Distribution 212 0.79 1.29 0.811 24
Pulp, Paper & Paperboard Mills 65 0.89 1.70 0.825 49
Traveler Accommodation 165 4.08 6.34 0.841 9
Motor Vehicle Mfg 31 0.43 0.49 0.842 30
Nondepository Credit Intermediation 140 3.72 4.46 0.842 39
Insurance Carriers 519 1.85 2.79 0.849 5


Table 15 shows the highest ranked industries for Asian women. While Legal Services and Office of Physicians are also highly ranked for the probability of moving from white collar to management positions, some different industries are highly ranked for Asian women. The highest ranked industry is Full-Service Restaurants and Grocery Stores are ranked fourth.

Table 15
Those Industries Where Asian Women Have the Highest Odds
of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF ASIAN WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Full-Service Restaurants 47 1.62 1.70 2.013 6
Legal Services 506 3.17 2.72 1.997 42
Offices of Physicians 392 2.72 3.76 1.646 44
Grocery Stores 293 0.73 1.46 1.414 2
Services to Buildings & Dwellings 65 0.95 0.43 1.317 26
Employment Services 153 1.71 2.22 1.280 41
Building Material & Supplies Dealers 139 0.64 0.80 1.236 19
Architectural, Engineering & Related Services 705 1.18 1.94 1.212 18
Scheduled Air Transportation 50 1.29 2.57 1.195 13
Nursing Care Facilities 1,021 3.37 5.26 1.159 10


Table 16 lists those industries where Asian women have the lowest chance of moving into management positions. While Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing is the third lowest ranked industry for both African American and Hispanic women, it is the lowest for Asian women. The second lowest ranked industry for Asian women is Department Stores which is ranked as having the lowest probability for African American women and Hispanic women to move into management positions.

Table 16
Those Industries Where Asian Women Have the Lowest Odds of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF ASIAN WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Pharmaceutical & Medicine Mfg 191 2.55 5.25 0.553 25
Department Stores 50 1.65 3.07 0.596 3
Scientific R&D Services 326 1.77 3.98 0.646 31
Medical Equipment & Supplies Mfg 227 1.60 3.41 0.668 46
Depository Credit Intermediation 325 1.89 3.30 0.676 8
Computer & Peripheral Equipment Mfg 153 2.10 3.90 0.677 29
Scrty & Comdty Contracts Intermed & Brokerage 120 2.43 3.99 0.684 36
Nondepository Credit Intermediation 140 2.43 4.66 0.698 39
Semiconductor & Oth Electronic Component Mfg 497 2.72 5.32 0.704 14
Nav/Measuring/Medical/Control Instruments Mfg 350 1.36 2.39 0.730 28


Table 17 displays those industries where Native American women have the highest odds of moving from white collar to management positions. Legal Services and Office of Physicians are the highest ranked which is consistent with the results for African American women and Hispanic women. It is also compatible with the results for Asian women. Native American women also display high odds of becoming managers in General Medical & Surgical Hospitals.

Table 17
Those Industries Where Native American Women Have the Highest Odds of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Legal Services 506 1.83 0.08 4.634 42
Offices of Physicians 392 1.48 0.56 3.126 44
General Medical & Surgical Hospitals 1,652 0.57 0.32 2.856 1
Architectural, Engineering & Related Services 705 0.60 0.14 2.622 18
Other Ambulatory Health Care Services 328 0.98 0.37 2.306 48
Employment Services 153 0.83 0.18 2.305 41
Computer Systems Design & Related Services 639 0.58 0.14 2.304 15
Nursing Care Facilities 1,021 1.51 0.41 2.242 10
Grocery Stores 293 0.31 0.46 2.144 2
Management, Sci & Tech Consulting Services 287 0.59 0.14 2.030 38


Table 18 shows the industries where Native American women have the lowest odds of moving into management positions. Like other women of color, Department Stores is one of the lowest ranked industries. Depository Credit Intermediation is the second lowest ranked industry just as it was for Hispanic women. The lowest ranked industry for Native American women is Pulp, Paper & Paperboard Mills. This industry is also on the list of the 10 lowest industries for African American women and for Hispanic women, but the industry is not as low ranked for those groups.

Table 18
Those Industries Where Native American Women Have the Lowest Odds of Moving from Employment as Professionals, Technicians and Sales Workers to Management
Selected from the Top 50 Industries Based on Total Employment

INDUSTRY NUMBER OF FIRMS PERCENT OF NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN WEIGHTED ODDS RATIO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RANK
MANAGERS WHITE COLLAR POSITIONS
Pulp, Paper & Paperboard Mills 65 0.24 0.17 0.818 49
Depository Credit Intermediation 325 0.31 0.20 0.819 8
Department Stores 50 0.29 0.52 0.822 3
Elec Pwr Generation, Transmsn & Distribution 212 0.26 0.14 0.886 24
Converted Paper Product Mfg 176 0.85 0.15 0.914 37
Traveler Accommodation 165 0.59 0.24 0.917 9
Motor Vehicle Body & Trailer Mfg 81 0.32 0.09 0.937 40
Other Fabricated Metal Product Mfg 296 0.92 0.10 0.980 47
Animal Slaughtering & Processing 56 1.36 0.19 1.006 23
Aerospace Product & Parts Mfg 158 0.29 0.20 1.012 21


Conclusion

Women of color appear to have some common experiences with respect to the movement from white collar positions into management. Consistently, Legal Services, Offices of Physicians and Architectural, Engineering & Related Services are among the industries with the highest odds for minority women moving from white collar positions into management positions. This is not necessarily "good" news, as these industries may have managers with lower employment status than other industries. Those industries where women of color confront low probabilities of movement into management positions consistently include Department Stores and Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing and Depository Credit Intermediation.


PER CAPITA CHARGE RATES

Another measure to examine the employment status of women of color is a per capita charge rate that compares charges filed to employment. Such rates are computed for each race/ethnic group. The EEO-1 data from 2001 and charge data from fiscal year 2002 are used. The charge data came from EEOC and FEPAs. In order to obtain charging party race/ethnic data in the same way as it is collected for the EEO-1, only charging party's race and charging party's ethnicity are used. A per capita charge rate is computed by dividing charges filed per 1,000 EEO-1 reported employees. For example, the number of charges filed by African American women is divided by every 1,000 female African American employee reported on the EEO-1. The rates are also computed by industry. Here a two-digit SIC code(6) is utilized. In order to produce meaningful results, the analysis is restricted to those industries which had at least 50 EEO-1 reports and at least 1,000 employees of the group being examined.

In order to measure the differential effects for race/ethnicity and industrial groups, an analysis of variance is conducted. The results indicate an effect for both race/ethnicity and industrial groups. Overall, these two items account for 76 percent of the variability in the per capita charge rates by race/ethnic group for specific industry groups. Of this explained variability, race/ethnic groups account for 35 percent and industrial groups account for 65 percent. That is, industrial groups are almost twice as useful as race/ethnicity for explaining differences in per capita charge rates.

Two different but related analyses are conducted to detect whether five race/ethnic groups had substantially different experiences in different industries. Two different simple correlation procedures indicate a substantial relationship between per capita charge rates by industry for race/ethnic groups. The relationship is highest between White non-Hispanic women and African American women (0.90 correlation), high between White non-Hispanic women and Hispanic women (0.81 correlation) and lowest between Asian women and Native American women (0.50 correlation). Factor analysis confirms that it is not necessary to specify both race/ethnicity and industry to explain per capita charge rates. It is only necessary to specify either race/ethnic group or industry.

Per capita charge rates based on race/ethnic groups of women is provided in Table 19. When examining per capita charge rates, African American women file charges at a greater rate than other race/ethnic groups followed by Native American women, Hispanic women, White Non-Hispanic women and Asian women.

Table 19
Charge Rate per 1,000 Employees

WOMEN CHARGES
PER 1,000
EMPLOYEES
WHITE NON-HISPANIC 1.37
AFRICAN AMERICAN 5.19
HISPANIC 2.59
ASIAN 1.12
NATIVE AMERICAN 2.64

Table 20 provides the high and low per capita charge rates by group of women and by industry.

Table 20
Highest and Lowest Industry Charge Rates
by Race/Ethnic Group

WOMEN INDUSTRIES WITH LOWEST RATES
(CHARGES PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES)
INDUSTRIES WITH HIGHEST RATES
(CHARGES PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES)
WHITE NON-HISPANIC Engineering & Management Services (0.22) Agricultural Services
(9.79 )
AFRICAN AMERICAN Engineering & Management Services (0.99 ) Automotive Dealers & Service Stations (27.6 )
HISPANIC Engineering & Management Services (0.35 ) Special Trade Contractors
(14.3)
ASIAN Stone, Clay, & Glass Products (0.0) Apparel & Other Textile Products (8.20)
NATIVE AMERICAN Engineering & Management Services (0.33) Social Services (7.74)

While industry plays a greater role in explaining per capita charge rates, by examining results for each of the race/ethnic groups, it is possible to see the consistency of industry results and identify limited differences. Table 21 lists the industries with the five highest per capita charge rates for African American women. Automotive Dealers and Service Stations and Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries are the industries with the highest rates of charges filed by African American women, with each having more than 27 charges per 1,000 employees.

Table 21
Highest Per Capita Charge Rates for African American Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Automotive Dealers & Service Stations 2,297 308,174 9,373 259 27.6
Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 1,131 237,013 9,663 263 27.2
General Building Contractors 1,024 211,688 3,028 76 25.1
Special Trade Contractors 2,283 410,140 3,843 82 21.3
Personal Services 929 141,287 13,855 288 20.8


The industries with the lowest per capita charge rates for African American women are listed in Table 22. Engineering & Management Services is the lowest ranked industry with slightly less than one charge filed by an African American woman per 1,000 female African American employees.

Table 22
Lowest Per Capita Charge Rates for African American Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Engineering & Management Services 6,812 1,334,615 66,784 66 0.99
Textile Mill Products 1,274 351,354 40,375 50 1.24
Paper And Allied Products 2,288 504,996 21,270 45 2.12
Leather and Leather Products 168 42,228 1,372 3 2.19
General Merchandise Stores 12,694 2,569,437 269,340 713 2.65


Table 23 examines the highest ranked industries with respect to charges filed by Hispanic women per 1,000 female Hispanic employees. The industries listed here appear to be heavily represented in construction-related fields. Three of the five industries are in that sector of the economy. Automotive Dealers and Service Stations, although listed fifth, is notable as it is the highest ranked industry for African American women filing charges. Of course, General Building Contractors and Special Trade Contractors are also in the highest five ranked industries for both Hispanic women and African American women filing charges.

Table 23
Highest Per Capita Charge Rates for Hispanic Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT HISPANIC WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY HISPANIC WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 HISPANIC WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Special Trade Contractors 2,283 410,140 4,631 66 14.3
General Building Contractors 1,024 211,688 3,079 34 11.0
Auto Repair, Services, And Parking 1,068 152,967 5,361 54 10.1
Heavy Construction, Ex. Building 1,302 282,533 1,569 15 9.56
Automotive Dealers & Service Stations 2,297 308,174 9,472 83 8.76


Table 24 examines the lowest ranked industries with respect to charges filed by Hispanic women per 1,000 female Hispanic employees. Engineering and Management Services is the lowest ranked industry, with just 0.35 charges filed by Hispanic women per 1,000 female Hispanic employees. This industry is also the lowest ranked industry for African American women. General Merchandise Stores also appears among the lowest ranked groups for both African American women and Hispanic women.

Table 24
Lowest Per Capita Charge Rates for Hispanic Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT HISPANIC WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY HISPANIC WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 HISPANIC WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Engineering & Management Services 6,812 1,334,615 34,654 12 0.35
Museums, Botanical, Zoological Gardens 106 39,787 1,620 1 0.62
Wholesale Trade--Nondurable Goods 3,802 803,033 33,082 31 0.94
General Merchandise Stores 12,694 2,569,437 174,379 174 1.00
Industrial Machinery and Equipment 4,429 1,213,063 23,586 25 1.06


Charges filed by Asian women are also examined by industry and the highest ranked industries with respect to charges filed by Asian women per 1,000 female Asian employees are listed in Table 25.

Table 25
Highest Per Capita Charge Rates for Asian Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT ASIAN WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY ASIAN WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 ASIAN WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Apparel And Other Textile Products 853 178,859 6,094 50 8.20
Auto Repair, Services, And Parking 1,068 152,967 1,942 13 6.69
Personal Services 929 141,287 3,746 22 5.87
Automotive Dealers & Service Stations 2,297 308,174 2,270 13 5.73
Real Estate 1,189 184,102 2,724 15 5.51


The industries where Asian women are most likely to file charges are in some ways very similar to industries where other women of color are most likely to file charges. For example, Automotive Dealers and Service Stations is ranked as the fourth worst industry for per capita charge rates for Asian women. It is ranked first for African American women and fifth for Hispanics women. Auto Repair Services and Parking is ranked second for Asian women and third for Hispanic women. However, the industry with the highest per capita charge rate for Asian women is the Manufacturing of Apparel and Other Textile Products which is not observed on the list of high charge rates for African American women or for Hispanic women.

Table 26
Lowest Per Capita Charge Rates for Asian Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT ASIAN WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY ASIAN WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 ASIAN WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Stone, Clay, And Glass Products 1,518 294,124 1,590 0 0.
Instruments And Related Products 2,002 628,539 24,239 4 0.17
Insurance Agents, Brokers, & Service 1,094 218,671 4,421 1 0.23
Engineering & Management Services 6,812 1,334,615 38,057 10 0.26
Security And Commodity Brokers 1,516 414,997 14,790 5 0.34


Table 26 provides the list of the industries with the lowest per capita charge rates for Asian women. The fourth lowest ranked industry for Asian women is Engineering & Management Services. This industry ranks lowest for African American women and Hispanic women. The highest ranked industry, Stone, Clay, and Glass Products had no charges during the period studied but also had very limited employment of Asian women.

Table 27 provides the list of the five industries with the highest per capita charge rates for charges filed by Native Americans. The highest ranked industry is Social Services. Related service industries of Hotel and Other Lodging Places and Eating and Drinking Places, are also among the industries with a high per capita charge rate for Native American women.

Table 27
Highest Per Capita Charge Rates for Native American Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Social Services 3,352 515,928 1,937 15 7.74
Miscellaneous Retail 3,949 536,867 1,597 11 6.89
Hotels And Other Lodging Places 3,341 906,306 2,595 16 6.17
Electric, Gas, And Sanitary Services 3,229 617,907 1,066 5 4.69
Eating And Drinking Places 16,245 1,512,632 5,698 25 4.39


Table 28 displays those industries where Native American women are least likely to file charges. The lowest ranked industry for Native American women is Engineering and Management Services. This industry also ranks lowest for African American women and Hispanic women. General Merchandise Store is the second lowest ranked industry for charges filed by Native American women. The industry is also among the lowest ranked for African American women and Hispanic women.

Table 28
Lowest Per Capita Charge Rates for Native American Women

INDUSTRY EEO-1 REPORTS FILED TOTAL EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN EEO-1 EMPLOYMENT CHARGES FILED BY NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN CHARGES PER 1,000 NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN EMPLOYEES
Engineering & Management Services 6,812 1,334,615 3,029 1 0.33
General Merchandise Stores 12,694 2,569,437 13,126 9 0.69
Instruments And Related Products 2,002 628,539 1,344 1 0.74
Food Stores 16,021 2,012,395 7,948 6 0.75
Building Materials & Garden Supplies 2,613 411,865 1,029 1 0.97


Conclusion

Race/ethnicity and industry both have an effect on per capita charge rates. African American women file charges at a greater rate (5.19) than other race/ethnic groups. Native American women (2.64) and Hispanic women (2.64) file at a similar rate, followed by White Non-Hispanic women (1.37) and Asian women (1.12). Additionally, it is not necessary to specify both race/ethnicity and industry to explain per capita charge rates. It is only necessary to specify either race/ethnic group or industry. While there are minor differences between race/ethnic groups of women, the consistency of industrial rankings is apparent.

Firms in Engineering and Management Services are least likely to be the subject of a charge by each of the minority groups of women, except Asian women. While a number of charges are filed against General Merchandise Stores, accounting for employment reveals that women of color have a relatively small probability of filing charges against these type of firms. On the other hand, with the exception of Native American women, the Automotive Dealers and Service Stations is consistently ranked among the industries with the highest per capital charge rates. This industry has the worst charge rate for African American women and Asian women. Construction-based industries, such as Special Trade Contractors and General Building Contractors, have high per capita charge rates for both African American women and Hispanic women. The highest ranked industry with highest level of per capita charges by Asian women is Apparel And Other Textile Products and for Native American women it is Social Services.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

For additional information, visit our web site at http://www.eeoc.gov. Click on STATISTICS and JOB PATTERNS FOR MINORITIES AND WOMEN (http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/jobpat/jobpat.html) for sample copies of the EEO-1 form, an instruction booklet and aggregate statistics. Click on EEOC ENFORCEMENT STATISTICS AND LITIGATION (http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/enforcement.html) for data regarding charges.


Footnotes:

1. See "Section 5, Description of Job Categories" in the EEO-1 instruction booklet athttp://www.eeoc.gov/stats/jobpat/e1instruct.html.

2. There are more than 100 state and local Fair Employment Practices Agencies (FEPAs). The EEOC has cooperative relationships with all but a few of them. The EEOC and the FEPAs it works with have reached Worksharing Agreements that divide up their common workload of charges in order to avoid duplication of charge processing. Each charge of discrimination that is covered by both an EEOC-enforced statute and the FEPA's law or ordinance is dual-filed under both laws, regardless of which agency receives it.

3. Industries with 25 or fewer EEO-1 reports filed are excluded from these analyses.

4. Industries with fewer than 15 companies are not included, nor are those with more officials and managers than white collar workers. Also, those industries where regression results showed no relationship between white collar and officials and managers are removed.

5. Weights are generated by using a canonical correlation of total officials and managers with total professional, total technical and total sales workers. The weights used are the standardized regression coefficients. If the regression coefficient is less than zero or is not statistically significant, a weight of zero is assigned. Thus, the job group is not included in the calculation.

6. It should be noted that this information is sometimes missing in the EEOC charge tracking system.


This page was last modified on July 28, 2003.