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Coverage of Labor Unions and Joint Apprenticeship Committees

General Coverage

The laws prohibiting race, color, religion, sex (including sexual orientation, gender identity, or pregnancy), national origin, older age (beginning at age 40), disability, and genetic information (including family medical history) discrimination apply to all labor organizations that either operate a hiring hall or have at least 15 members.

Labor Unions And Unlawful Practices

A labor union is prohibited from discriminating in its capacity as an employer, in its capacity as a bargaining representative for its members, or as a referral agency or hiring hall. It is unlawful for a labor union to deny membership to individuals because of their race, color, religion, sex (including sexual orientation, gender identity, or pregnancy), national origin, older age (beginning at age 40), disability, or genetic information (including family medical history). It is also unlawful for a labor union to limit, segregate or classify its members based on race, color, religion, sex (including sexual orientation, gender identity, or pregnancy), national origin, older age (beginning at age 40), disability, or genetic information (including family medical history). It is unlawful for a labor union to refuse to refer a member for employment and/or refuse to represent a member because of the individual's race, color, religion, sex (including sexual orientation, gender identity, or pregnancy), national origin, older age (beginning at age 40), disability, or genetic information (including family medical history).

Age Discrimination And Coverage

The law that prohibits age discrimination applies to all labor organizations that either operate a hiring hall or have at least 25 members.

Equal Pay Act And Coverage

Virtually all labor organizations are covered by the Equal Pay Act (EPA), which makes it illegal to pay different wages to men and women if they perform substantially equal work in the same workplace.

Joint Apprenticeship Committees And Unlawful Practices

The law also covers any joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining programs, including an on-the-job training program. It is unlawful for such a committee to discriminate against any individual because of his race, color, religion, sex (including sexual orientation, gender identity, or pregnancy), national origin, older age (beginning at age 40), disability, or genetic information (including family medical history), in admission to, or employment in, any program established to provide apprenticeship or other training.

Deciding Coverage Of Labor Unions And Joint Apprenticeship Committees

If you aren't sure whether coverage exists, you should contact one of our field offices as soon as possible so we can make that decision. It is also important to keep in mind that, if a labor union or joint apprenticeship committee is not covered by the laws we enforce, it still may be covered by a state or local anti-discrimination law. If it is, we can refer you to the state or local agency that enforces that law.